Treaty of Córdoba & Cessation of the Mexican War of Independence
Bicentennial Observance – 1821
Orden Hijos de America (Order of the Sons of America) & Latino Civil Rights Movement Centennial Observance – 1921
Introduction – Treaty of Córdoba & Cessation of the Mexican War of Independence
This year marks the two-hundredth anniversary marks the conclusion of the Mexican War for Independence (1810-1821) made official by the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba. This particular conflict involved the occupational forces of España and the native citizenry of Mexico which included members of the Mestizos, Zambos, and Amerindian tribes along with sympathetic Mexican-raised Spaniards who rebelled against their colonial overseers. Organized by the first rebel leader Hidalgo y Costilla, a band of revolutionaries invaded the town of Guanajuato which hosted a Spanish-operated central mining center on September 15, 1810. The invasion proved successful, and this date has since become known as Mexican Independence Day. This insurgency led to further skirmishes and battles over the next decade plus which illustrated the inequity found in royal rule.
There were a number of rebel setbacks as they encountered resistance from the better armed Spanish-armed colonial forces, but the Mexicans had strength in numbers featuring 80,000 troops to 14,000 for the Spaniards. By 1813 positive strides were made in terms of geographical and strategic movement when the key cities of Oaxaca and Acapulco were captured by the rebel forces. Inspired by these successes, a “Solemn Act of Declaration of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America” was drafted that served as an important foundation document in the historical evolution of Mexico and her independence that same year.
Armed fortunes turned during the Siege of Cuautla in 1815 when the tide of conflict successes changed as governmental issues both within Mexico and abroad helped to weaken the ruling regime. Thereafter, a series of local and sporadic attacks ultimately led to victory by the native population of Mexico and the conclusion of Spanish rule altogether on August 24, 1821.
Information Resources Seton Hall University Libraries (SHU Search)
- Independent Mexico : The Pronunciamiento in the Age of Santa Anna, 1821–1858. By: Will Fowler. Series: The Mexican Experience. Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press. 2016.
- The History of Mexico : From Pre-Conquest to Present. By: Russell, Philip. Hoboken : Taylor & Francis, 2010.
- The History of Mexico. By: Kirkwood, Burton. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000.
- Ethnic Realities of Mexican Americans: From Colonialism to 21st Century Globalization. By: Urbina, Martin G.; Sanchez, Juan O.; Vela, Joel E. Springfield, Illinois, U.S.A. : Charles C Thomas. 2014.
Internet & Related Sources (Selected List)
Mexican War of Independence (Texas Historical Society)
Mexican War of Independence (Timeline)
Mexican War of Independence (Library of Congress)
Mexican War of Independence (Wayback Machine / Texas A&M University Site)
Mexican War of Independence (Map, 1810-1821)
Mexican War of Independence (Hathi Trust)
Treaty of Córdoba (World History Project)
Treaty of Córdoba and Other Relevant Documents (Wayback Machine / Texas A&M University Site)
Treaty of Córdoba (Copy of the Original Document – 1821)
Introduction – Orden Hijos de America (Order of the Sons of America) & Latino Civil Rights Movement
The Orden Hijos de América (Order of the Sons of America) was founded in San Antonio, Texas on October 13, 1921. In the process the 37 individuals who formed this group were part of the first formal Mexican American civil rights organization active within that state. Their primary mission was to achieve fair access to education, housing opportunities, fair labor wages, and having all the rights outlined within the American Constitution. Additional members would join this movement that expanded into the hundreds as the organization was restricted solely to United States citizens of Mexican or Spanish extraction and over the age of sixteen. The Order obtained a state charter in 1922 and subsequently opened additional chapters throughout Texas.
Internet & Related Sources (Selected List)
Orden Hijos de América (Order of the Sons of America) (Texas Historical Society)
Orden Hijos de América (Order of the Sons of America) (Timeline)
Orden Hijos de América (Order of the Sons of America) (Wikipedia)
Our reference librarians are glad to assist with specific works and additional information (along with refreshing links) along with Spanish or English translations as needed. Additional resources on all aspects of the Latino experience are also available for consultation and information sharing. Please feel free to reach out and setup a research appointment via the following link – https://library.shu.edu/library/research-appointments found on the University Libraries Homepage or for unique primary source materials via the Monsignor William Noé Field Archives & Special Collections Center.
Thank you in advance for your interest!
This bibliographical guide was produced in conjunction Seton Hall University Hispanic Heritage Committee under the direction of Dr. Omayra Arocho, Head of the Joseph A. Unanue Latino Institute – https://www.shu.edu/latino-institute/
by Alan Delozier, D.Litt. with support from Professor Lisa DeLuca, Professor Brooke Duffy, Dr. Sarah Ponichtera, and Dr. Lisa Rose-Wiles.