Keytruda (pembrolizumab) and Opdivo (nivolumab) are monoclonal antibodies that disrupt the PD-1 (Opdivo) / PD-L1 (Keytruda) pathway; they are approved by the FDA for the treatment of patients with unresectable melanoma, as well as other cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), head and neck cancer, renal cell carcinoma (Opdivo), and Hodg kin lymphoma (Opdivo). Keytruda is limited to patients with NSCLC with a tumor proportion score (TPS) of greater than 50% for PD-L1 staining. Continue reading
PD-1 inhibition (Figure 1) has quickly become a front-line therapy for non-small cell lung cancer and melanoma. Moreover, PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors are being tested in combination with other checkpoint inhibitors, targeted therapies, cancer vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and other modalities. But, how does PD-1 blunt the anti-tumor immune response? Continue reading
It is estimated that about 40 percent of patients with advanced melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, will initially respond to an immunotherapy, but about a quarter of those 40 percent will relapse within three years of treatment. In order to identify the mechanisms by which resistance to PD-1 inhibition is mediated, UCLA researchers studied biopsies of melanoma tumors taken before and after treatment with Keytruda (pembrolizumab) in patients whose cancer had returned. Continue reading
DNAtrix and Merck announced a collaboration to combine oncolytic virus therapy and PD-1 inhibition – the two companies will collaborate in phase II clinical trials on a therapy to treat glioblastoma, an especially deadly cancer for which there is no cure. Continue reading
Colony Stimulating Factor (CSF-1) is an essential growth factor for cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, including osteoclasts.