This NY Times article details the efforts of Dr. Giulio Tononi to develop a means to measure a person’s level of consciousness as easily as a blood pressure sleeve measures a person’s blood pressure. Dr. Tononi is one of the world’s experts on consciousness, especially that peculiar form of half-consciousness known as sleep. While most people, researchers included, have long thought of consciousness as a kind of synchronization of brain waves, Dr. Tononi noticed that in particular kinds of unconsciousness, like during epileptic seizures, brain waves were even more synchronized than during wakeful periods. It seemed a new paradigm for consciousness was required. And for that paradigm, Dr. Tononi turned to information theory.
While in medical school, Dr. Tononi began to think of consciousness in a different way, as a particularly rich form of information. He took his inspiration from the American engineer Claude Shannon, who built a scientific theory of information in the mid-1900s. Mr. Shannon measured information in a signal by how much uncertainty it reduced. There is very little information in a photodiode that switches on when it detects light, because it reduces only a little uncertainty…. Our neurons are basically fancy photodiodes, producing electric bursts in response to incoming signals. But the conscious experiences they produce contain far more information than in a single diode. In other words, they reduce much more uncertainty.
Tononi has developed a measure called phi that seems to track how rich in information a mental state is, and the article mentions some preliminary medical work that is lending support to his model. The research is in its infancy and much more work is needed, but the same could be said for all science-based inquiries into consciousness. The point here is that the Dr. Tononi’s work “translating the poetry of our conscious experiences into the precise language of mathematics” holds promise—at the very least, enough promise to warrant featuring in this article.