APA 7th Common Reference Examples 10.1

The APA 7th Edition contains many useful examples of how to create a proper citation in APA format.  Below are some examples specifically focusing on textual works are covered in Sections 10.1 of the publication guide.

Journal Article (Section 10.1)

Edwards, A. A., Steacy, L. M., Siegelman, N., Rigobon, V. M., Kearns, D. M., Rueckl, J. G., & Compton, D. L. (2022). Unpacking the unique relationship between set for variability and word reading development: Examining word- and child-level predictors of performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 114(6), 1242–1256. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000696

Online Magazine Article (Section 10.1)

Thomson, J. (2022, September 8). Massive, Strange White Structures Appear on Utah’s Great Salt Lake. Newsweek. https://www.newsweek.com/mysterious-mounds-great-salt-lake-utah-explained-mirabilite-1741151

Print Magazine Article (Section 10.1)

Nicholl, K. (2020, May). A royal spark. Vanity Fair, 62(5), 56–65, 100.

Online Newspaper Article (Section 10.1)

Robert, S. (2020, April 9). Early String Ties Us to Neanderthals. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/09/science/neanderthals-fiber-string-math.html

Print Newspaper Article (Section 10.1)

Reynolds, G. (2019, April 9). Different strokes for athletic hearts. The New York Times, D4.

Blog Post (Section 10.1)

Rutledge, P. (2019, March 11). The upside of social media. The Media Psychology Blog.


APA Style. (2022). Instructional aids. Https://Apastyle.Apa.Org. https://apastyle.apa.org/instructional-aids

Types of Literature Reviews

Overview of a Literature Review

A literature review is a generic term used to describe a synthesis of information to answer a research question. The purpose of a literature review is to present the scholarly information that is available on a topic, provide support to the proposed research, and relate the literature to the proposed research question. There are numerous types of literature reviews. These vary from a narrative review to a systematic review.

Review types differ by:

      • the precision of the research question (broad to specific)
      • the goal of the review
      • the standards of the searching method
      • if the articles are appraised
      • how information from various sources is synthesized
      • the analysis of the results
      • showing the current state of the literature around a particular topic

The IHS Library offers assistance How to Write a Literature Review.


Types of Literature Reviews

Literature or Narrative Review

    • Team: May be completed by a single author
    • Definition: Generic term: A synthesis of current literature surrounding a specific topic. The purpose of a narrative review is to provide background information on the topic, support the proposed research and/or answer a research question.
    • Search Methods: Non-specific; Author chooses relevant articles based on research question.
    • Appraisal: Determined by the author
    • Synthesis: Narrative
    • Analysis: Chronological, conceptual, thematic, etc.

 Scoping or Mapping Review

    • Team: Requires a minimum of 2 authors
    • Definition: Preliminary assessment of potential size and scope of available research literature on a broad topic. Aims to identify nature and extent of research evidence. Includes grey literature, preprints and ongoing studies. Scoping reviews are conducted based upon the JBI manual of evidence synthesis.
    • Search Methods: Broad scope of literature available. Search methods must be transparent and reproducible. Search strategies are peer reviewed & documented in full.
    • Appraisal: All evidence is independently screened by 2 reviewers to ensure evidence meets the inclusion criteria. The critical appraisal process is optional but recommended
    • Synthesis: Narrative
    • Analysis: Characterizes quantity and quality of literature based upon the elements of the PCC research question and the inclusion/exclusion criteria

Systematic Review

    • Team: (Requires a minimum of 2 authors)
    • Definition: Seeks to systematically search for, appraise and synthesize all available research evidence on the topic. SRs answer a specific research question and are conducted based upon the JBI manual of evidence synthesis.
    • Search Methods: Exhaustive, comprehensive, & systematic search. Search methods must be transparent & reproducible. Search strategies are peer reviewed & well documented.
    • Appraisal: All evidence is independently screened by 2 reviewers to meet inclusion criteria and critically appraised using the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklists
    • Synthesis: Narrative
    • Analysis: Synthesizes what is known within the existing literature. Highlights what is unknown and recommends future research.
  • Umbrella Review
    • Team: (Requires a minimum of 2 authors)
    • Definition: Reviews the results of multiple systematic reviews on a specific topic. All reviews must analyze a shared methodology, facilitating comparison and analysis. Umbrella reviews are conducted based upon the JBI manual of evidence synthesis
    • Search Methods: Exhaustive, comprehensive & systematic search of reviews. Does not include primary studies. Search methods must be transparent, reproducible, and well documented.
    • Appraisal: All evidence is independently screened by 2 reviewers to meet inclusion criteria and critically appraised using the JBI Critical Appraisal Checklists
    • Synthesis: Graphical and tabular with narrative commentary
    • Analysis: What is known; Recommendations for practice. What remains unknown; recommendations for future research

Rapid Review

    • Team: Requires a minimum of 2 authors
    • Definition: Assessment of what is already known about a policy or practice issue, by using systematic review methods to search and critically appraise existing research. RRs are conducted according to the JBI manual of evidence synthesis
    • Search Methods: Completeness of searching determined by time constraints. All search strategies must be transparent, reproducible, and documented
    • Appraisal: Time-limited formal quality assessment.
    • All evidence is independently screened by 2 reviewers to meet inclusion criteria
    • Synthesis: Narrative and tabular
    • Analysis: Quantities of literature and overall quality/direction of effect of literature

Meta Analysis

    • Definition: Statistical analysis of quantitative evidence provided within a Systematic Review.
    • Team: Interdisciplinary
    • Meta-analysis are conducted according to the JBI manual of evidence synthesis
    • Search Methods: Exhaustive, comprehensive & systematic search of reviews. Does not include primary studies. Search methods must be transparent, reproducible and documented.
    • Appraisal: All evidence has been critically appraised in the systematic review
    • Synthesis: Graphical representation in a Forest plot.
    • Analysis: Numerical analysis of measures of effect assuming absence of heterogeneity


Reproduced from Grant, M. J. and Booth, A. (2009), A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 26: 91–108. doi:10.1111/j.1471-1842.2009.00848.x

The most “cited” articles, published in 2023, by Hackensack School of Medicine affiliated authors


Arastehfar, A., Daneshnia, F., Cabrera, N., Penalva-Lopez, S., Sarathy, J., Zimmerman, M., Shor, E., & Perlin, D. S. (2023). Macrophage internalization creates a multidrug-tolerant fungal persister reservoir and facilitates the emergence of drug resistance. Nature communications, 14(1), 1183. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-36882-6  doi:10.1038/s41467-023-36882-6

PMID: 36864040

Chung, M. K., Patton, K. K., Lau, C. P., Dal Forno, A. R. J., Al-Khatib, S. M., Arora, V., Birgersdotter-Green, U. M., Cha, Y. M., Chung, E. H., Cronin, E. M., Curtis, A. B., Cygankiewicz, I., Dandamudi, G., Dubin, A. M., Ensch, D. P., Glotzer, T. V., Gold, M. R., Goldberger, Z. D., Gopinathannair, R., Gorodeski, E. Z., … Zeitler, E. P. (2023). 2023 HRS/APHRS/LAHRS guideline on cardiac physiologic pacing for the avoidance and mitigation of heart failure. Heart rhythm, 20(9), e17–e91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2023.0. doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2023.03.1538

PMID: 37283271

Daneshnia, F., de Almeida Júnior, J. N., Ilkit, M., Lombardi, L., Perry, A. M., Gao, M., Nobile, C. J., Egger, M., Perlin, D. S., Zhai, B., Hohl, T. M., Gabaldón, T., Colombo, A. L., Hoenigl, M., & Arastehfar, A. (2023). Worldwide emergence of fluconazole-resistant Candida parapsilosis: current framework and future research roadmap. The Lancet. Microbe, 4(6), e470–e480. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2666-5247(23)00067-8. doi:10.1016/S2666-5247(23)00067-8

PMID: 37121240

Harrison, R., Ahmed, M., Billah, M., Sheckley, F., Lulla, T., Caviasco, C., Sanders, A., Lovallo, G., & Stifelman, M. (2023). Single-port versus multiport partial nephrectomy: a propensity-score-matched comparison of perioperative and short-term outcomes. Journal of robotic surgery, 17(1), 223–231. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11701-022-01415-8. doi:10.1007/s11701-022-01415-8

PMID: 35648289

Knapp, E. A., Kress, A. M., Parker, C. B., Page, G. P., McArthur, K., Gachigi, K. K., Alshawabkeh, A. N., Aschner, J. L., Bastain, T. M., Breton, C. V., Bendixsen, C. G., Brennan, P. A., Bush, N. R., Buss, C., Camargo, C. A., Jr, Catellier, D., Cordero, J. F., Croen, L., Dabelea, D., Deoni, S., … Influences On Child Health Outcomes, O. B. O. P. C. F. E. (2023). The Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO)-Wide Cohort. American journal of epidemiology, 192(8), 1249–1263. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwad071

PMID: 36963379

Paul, R. W., Sonnier, J. H., Johnson, E. E., Hall, A. T., Osman, A., Connors, G. M., Freedman, K. B., & Bishop, M. E. (2023). Inequalities in the Evaluation of Male Versus Female Athletes in Sports Medicine Research: A Systematic Review. The American journal of sports medicine, 51(12), 3335–3342.doi:10.1177/03635465221131281

PMID: 36453705

Ragon, B. K., Shah, M. V., D’Souza, A., Estrada-Merly, N., Gowda, L., George, G., de Lima, M., Hashmi, S., Kharfan-Dabaja, M. A., Majhail, N. S., Banerjee, R., Saad, A., Hildebrandt, G. C., Mian, H., Abid, M. B., Battiwalla, M., Lekakis, L. J., Patel, S. S., Murthy, H. S., Nieto, Y., Vesole, DH… Usmani, S. Z. (2023). Impact of second primary malignancy post-autologous transplantation on outcomes of multiple myeloma: a CIBMTR analysis. Blood advances, 7(12), 2746–2757. https://doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2022009138 doi:10.1182/bloodadvances.2022009138

PMID: 36827681

Reyes, J., Komarow, L., Chen, L., Ge, L., Hanson, B. M., Cober, E., Herc, E., Alenazi, T., Kaye, K. S., Garcia-Diaz, J., Li, L., Kanj, S. S., Liu, Z., Oñate, J. M., Salata, R. A., Marimuthu, K., Gao, H., Zong, Z., Valderrama-Beltrán, S. L., Yu, Y., Kreiswirth, BN.,Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group and Multi-Drug Resistant Organism Network Investigators (2023). Global epidemiology and clinical outcomes of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and associated carbapenemases (POP): a prospective cohort study. The Lancet. Microbe, 4(3), e159–e170. doi:10.1016/S2666-5247(22)00329-9

PMID: 36774938

Siddiqi, T., Maloney, D. G., Kenderian, S. S., Brander, D. M., Dorritie, K., Soumerai, J., Riedell, P. A., Shah, N. N., Nath, R., Fakhri, B., Stephens, D. M., Ma, S., Feldman, T., Solomon, S. R., Schuster, S. J., Perna, S. K., Tuazon, S. A., Ou, S. S., Papp, E., Peiser, L., … Wierda, W. G. (2023). Lisocabtagene maraleucel in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma (TRANSCEND CLL 004): a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 1-2 study. Lancet (London, England), 402(10402), 641–654. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(23)01052-8

PMID: 37295445

Zhang, H., Qureshi, M. A., Wahid, M., Charifa, A., Ehsan, A., Ip, A., De Dios, I., Ma, W., Sharma, I., McCloskey, J., Donato, M., Siegel, D., Gutierrez, M., Pecora, A., Goy, A., & Albitar, M. (2023). Differential Diagnosis of Hematologic and Solid Tumors Using Targeted Transcriptome and Artificial Intelligence. The American journal of pathology, 193(1), 51–59.. doi:10.1016/j.ajpath.2022.09.006

PMID: 36243045


The “Most Read” JAMA Articles of 2023

The Most Read JAMA articles from 2023

Original Investigation

Naggie S, Boulware DR, Lindsell CJ, et al. Effect of Higher-Dose Ivermectin for 6 Days vs Placebo on Time to Sustained Recovery in Outpatients With COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2023;329(11):888-897. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.1650

PMID: 36807465

Original Investigation

Sims JR, Zimmer JA, Evans CD, et al. Donanemab in Early Symptomatic Alzheimer Disease: The TRAILBLAZER-ALZ 2 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2023;330(6):512-527. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.13239

PMID: 37459141

Original Investigation

Thaweethai T, Jolley SE, Karlson EW, et al. Development of a Definition of Postacute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection. JAMA. 2023;329(22):1934-1946. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.8823

PMID: 37278994

Original Investigation

Raison CL, Sanacora G, Woolley J, et al. Single-Dose Psilocybin Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2023;330(9):843-853. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.14530

PMID: 37651119

Original Investigation

Cohen PA, Avula B, Wang YH, Katragunta K, Khan I. Quantity of Melatonin and CBD in Melatonin Gummies Sold in the US. JAMA. 2023;329(16):1401-1402. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.2296

PMID: 37097362


Berwick DM. Salve Lucrum: The Existential Threat of Greed in US Health Care. JAMA. 2023;329(8):629-630. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.0846

PMID: 36716043

Original Investigation

Sodhi M, Rezaeianzadeh R, Kezouh A, Etminan M. Risk of Gastrointestinal Adverse Events Associated With Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists for Weight Loss. JAMA. 2023;330(18):1795-1797. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.19574

PMID: 37796527

Original Investigation

Qian ET, Casey JD, Wright A, et al. Cefepime vs Piperacillin-Tazobactam in Adults Hospitalized With Acute Infection: The ACORN Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2023;330(16):1557-1567. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.20583

PMID: 37837651

Original Investigation

Xie Y, Choi T, Al-Aly Z. Risk of Death in Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19 vs Seasonal Influenza in Fall-Winter 2022-2023. JAMA. 2023;329(19):1697-1699. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.5348

PMID: 37022720

A Piece of My Mind

Stillman M. Death by Patient Portal. JAMA. 2023;330(3):223-224. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.11629

PMID: 37389857

Register for an ORCID!

ORCID: Connecting Research and Researchers 

Seton Hall is now an institutional member of ORCID.  ORCID is a unique, persistent identifier (PID) you can register for so funders, publishers, scholarly societies, and other researchers can quickly find and distinguish your work.

Instructions are here:  https://library.shu.edu/orcid.

What Is ORCID?

ORCID–or Open Researcher and Contributor Identifiers–are unique IDs that you can use as a researcher to identify your academic work. The IDs help funders, publishers, scholarly societies, and other researchers to quickly find and distinguish your work from materials created by other researchers with similar names. ORCIDs are being used increasingly by publishers ranging from the Royal Society to PLOS, the American Geophysical Union, IEEE, and Wiley.

Why Use ORCID? Resolves Name Ambiguity Problems

It is currently very difficult to:

  • Track different forms of an individual researcher’s name across systems;
  • Distinguish between different researchers with the same name;
  • Identify all scholarly works associated with a particular researcher.

Researcher names can be ambiguous for a number of reasons. People who have published under common names, maiden names, abbreviations, or names including non-Roman characters may encounter difficulties in being discovered online. ORCIDs clarify this ambiguity by providing unique identifiers for each researcher

Why Use ORCID? Save Time

ORCIDs have already been integrated into workflows used by a variety of publishers, funders, and research organizations. The result is that citations can be automatically pushed to and from your ORCID profile with minimal effort on your part.

Tips for Using Your ORCID

Make changes to your ORCID profile using your WSU login: If you want to quickly jump on to your ORCID profile to make changes, you don’t have to remember your ORCID login–you can use your WSU credentials. On the ORCID sign-in page, just select “Institutional account” and you’ll be prompted for your WSU login.

Make your ORCID profile public: This maximizes the visibility of your research, and options for integrating your ORCID account with other systems.

Add name variations to your ORCID profile: If you have published under other names, be sure this is reflected in your ORCID profile.

Use your ORCID ID: Provide your ID as prompted when submitting manuscripts and grant proposals.

Link your ORCID ID: Link your ORCID to other services including ResearcherID, figshare, and professional organizations.

Consider displaying your ORCID ID: You may want to include your ORCID on posters, webpages, email signature lines, blogs, and social media accounts–anyplace where you’d like to refer others to the body of your research.

National Physical Therapy Month

Every October we celebrate the hard work and dedication of our Physical Therapists.  The IHS library is a proud supporter of our PT faculty and students here on campus and abroad.

Programs & Services - Active Physical Therapy & Wellness

Kyle Downey is the liaison librarian for the DPT program on the IHS campus.  He has developed a comprehensive library toolkit (research guide) that provides DPT faculty and students with access to a number of important and vital academic resources.  He also provides instruction and consultation support for both faculty and students who are doing research in this field.  The toolkit can be found here:


The IHS library has developed a strong collaborative partnership with the DPT over the past several years and we look forward to working on more projects together in the future.

For more information on what resources the IHS library has for our DPT program or any other program, feel free to contact our librarian and set up a consultation!


A New ClinicalTrials.gov Interface!

The National Library of Medicine has officially launched newly designed and modernized version of ClinicalTrial.gov.  The new design is visually more appealing for the user to find and retrieve relevant trial information for their research.  Some of the new updates include as left-side menus and expandable menus, that improve navigation and make information more discoverable. Ultimately, its a nice and cleaner look that’ll make finding trial information more streamlined.

The Focus Your Search menu on the left side of your screen allows you to input your clinical topics by category. You can search by Condition or disease, Other Terms, Intervention/Treatment and Location 

Figure 1: Homepage showing new “Search” features.


The homepage includes an additional “More Filters” section that expands upon clicking the plus sign (+). This can also be found in the search results page.  This gives the user more options in terms of expanding and limiting their search.  Users can find studies based on their current location, a city, state, country, or a specific address using the “Location” field with the newly integrated map.

Figure 2: Search showing the “More Filters” section.

On the search results page, users can choose either the card view or the table view to display the list of clinical studies. The card view displays information such as study type and recruitment status, study locations. The table view allows users to organize and compare studies by showing, hiding, or reordering columns. Additional filters to help narrow and customize the search results are available in a left-side menu on either view.

Figure 3: Search Results


The study record  has been redesigned to have features such as collapsible sections and interactive study results tables. Technical table views for data researchers  are now available to meet needs of date related research. The “Record History” tab has been reorganized so users can view relevant information in historical versions of the study record.

study record

Figure 4: Study Overview page

The legacy ClinicalTrials.gov website will remain available under the URL classic.ClinicalTrials.gov  Visit the modernized ClinicalTrials.gov to become more familiar with their new design and layout.  New updates are underway to keep up with user feedback.

Data Service Updates

Welcome to the fall semester!

Below are a few updates we hope you will share with your students:

Our library research guides are your portal to library resources in your subject area.

If you need help with your research or navigating the library, you can reach us through live chat, our AskUs service, or schedule a research appointment.

Announcing our New Print Book Collections – 2nd Floor Walsh Library

  • Leisure Reading
  • Faculty Publications
  • Hundreds of New Books
  • CAPS curated Self-Help Books

Services for Graduate Students include Research Support including Database Advanced Search Techniques, Literature Review and Citation Management Instruction.  Our Research Data Management Team provides research consultations, data analysis training, and help with software selection.

Need data sources to supplement your assignments or research?  Browse Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) , Living Atlas of The World, and  Statista, our newest data subscription that has data from 170 industries from over 150 countries.

Services for Faculty include Course Reserves, Instruction Requests, Streaming Video Services and Interlibrary Borrowing.  Your liaison librarians are ready to assist navigating University Libraries many services.  Please put in your course reserves requests asap if you have not already done so.

National Kidney Month

detailed illustration of a kidney

March begins National Kidney Month.  The IHS Library can provide you with many resources regarding this very important and vital organ.  Check out some of our resources, including organizational links, eBooks, journals and articles, with regards National Kidney Month.

General Kidney Information:

To know more about kidney disease  topics, check the following:

  • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


  • National Kidney Month Toolkit via the  National Institute Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


  •  MedlinePlus.gov: Kidney Diseases


Chronic Kidney Disease by the numbers (CDC):

  • Kidney diseases are a leading cause of death in the United States.
  • About 37 million US adults are estimated to have CKD, and most are undiagnosed.
  • 40% of people with severely reduced kidney function (not on dialysis) are not aware of having CKD.
  • Every 24 hours, 360 people begin dialysis treatment for kidney failure.
  • In the United States, diabetes and high blood pressure are the leading causes of kidney failure, accounting for 3 out of 4 new cases.
  • In 2019, treating Medicare beneficiaries with CKD cost $87.2 billion, and treating people with ESRD cost an additional $37.3 billion.


Anatomy Resources

  • Acland’s Video Atlas of Human Anatomy


  • Anatomy TV powered by Primal Pictures (Kidney 3D View)


  • AccessMedicine Human Anatomy Modules


  • Anatomy Books



The IHS library has a large of collection of eBooks pertaining to the kidney.  Below are just some examples of eBooks that are available to view:

AccessMedicine  Collection of McGraw Hill books on Nephrology

Additional eBooks

Front cover image for Methods in kidney cell biology. Part A, Volume 153

Methods in kidney cell biology: Part A

Front cover image for Methods in kidney cell biology. Part B

Methods in kidney cell biology: Part B

Front cover image for National Kidney Foundation's primer on kidney diseases

National Kidney Foundation’s primer on kidney diseases

Front cover image for Heptinstall's pathology of the kidney.

Heptinstall’s pathology of the kidney

Front cover image for Biomarkers of kidney disease

Biomarkers of Kidney Disease

Front cover image for Renal nursing : care and management of people with kidney disease

Renal Nursing 

Clinical Overviews and Evidence-Based Information

  • Critically Appraised Topical Information and Clinical Overviews can be found here:


DynaMed CKD Adults








ClinicalKey Guidelines

NKF KDOQI clinical practice guidelines

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence


Images (multimedia)

IHS library resources regarding images and kidney’s








Check here to see the following journals that are present in the IHS library holdings through BrowZine.  The IHS library subscribes to some core Nephrology journals including the American Journal of Nephrology and American Journal of Kidney

Nephrology Journals Via BrowZine

Contact your IHS Librarian!

For more information regarding library resources and services reach out to your IHS librarian to set up a consultation or a quick chat!


Continue reading “National Kidney Month”

Are you searching PEDro effectively?

The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) is the largest physical therapy-specific research database, containing well over 40,000 records ranging from clinical trials, systematic reviews, and clinical practice guidelines (Jr et al., 2019).  As a student or a clinician, it is understood that finding timely and appropriate evidence is important for your research or practice.  So below we are going to list some helpful steps that will make your searching more optimized and efficient.

Simple and Advance Searching

There are two main interfaces to search within PEDro; either the simple or advance search engine.

Simple Search:

The simple search has one free text field where you can input terms or phrases.  This search will only match the search terms or phrases to the text in an article’s title or abstract.

pedor simple search interface

Advanced Search:

The advanced search option gives the user 13 fields to use to develop a search.  These fields include: four free-text fields, which are similar to the simple search. These type-in fields contain; Abstract & Title, Author/Association, Title Only and Source. Six fields have drop down menus that include: Therapy, Problem, Body Part, Subdiscipline, Topic and Method.  Lastly, the three remaining sections are like filters you would see on a database like PubMed.  These options include Published Since (YYYY), New Records added since (DD/MM/YYYY) and Score of at least (/10).



Advanced Searching: AND, OR

There are ways to combine your searches in PEDro.  To do so you will need to be on the Advanced Search page.  To search for all the search terms in a record, use the AND operator located at the bottom of the page.  This has PEDro search for all those records with only those terms that have been typed in.  This will make your search much more precise, but also reduced in number.

To search for any of the search terms that have been typed in, use the OR operator instead, again located at the bottom of the page.  This will have the database search for trials, reviews or guidelines that contain any of the search terms that have been specified.


To enhance a search users can use truncation or wildcards.  These options allow the user to do a search using several variations for a specific word. By using an asterisk (*) at the end of a word, the database will locate multiple variations of that word in its records.  For example, to find records related to Parkinson’s, typing in Parkinson* will search for records containing, Parkinson Disease or Parkinson’s Disease or Parkinsonism.

Phrase Searching

A user can also search by a phrase.  PEDro automatically puts an AND between keywords, so as a user you may want to combine your terms into a phrase so that the search is more relevant.  For example, instead of just typing in low back pain, you may want to use it as a phrase and type it as, “low back pain”.  Doing a phrase search may eliminate irrelevant records from your search results.

Further Assistance

These are just some basic steps in order for you to effectively search PEDro. For further assistance in learning how to search PEDro, or any other library database, reach out to your librarian here at the IHS Library!

Also, visit the PEDro Search Help website for more tips on how to navigate and search PEDro.


Jr, Z., Am, M., Mr, E., & Cg, M. (2019). PEDro searching has improved over time: A comparison of search commands from two six-month periods three years apart. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2018.10.011

Search help. (n.d.). PEDro. Retrieved October 24, 2022, from https://pedro.org.au/english/learn/search-help/