Archives News: Conservation and Digitization of 17th Century Illuminated Manuscript Qur’an

Page from the Qur'an with intricate designThe Archives & Special Collections Center in collaboration with the Digital Humanities Committee recently had conservation work and digitization performed on a 17th century illuminated manuscript Qur’an from the rare book collection. The Qur’an was originally brought from Lebanon by Edwin D. Hardin, who was a missionary stationed at the American University of Beirut from approximately 1900 to 1915. It first came to Seton Hall in 2003 when it was featured in a Walsh Gallery exhibition entitled The Beauty of Sacred Texts: Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Institute of Judeo-Christian Studies. The lender, Mr. Peter Kennedy, had intended to gift the volume to the University and in 2016 donated the Qur’an to the Archives & Special Collections Center.

Qur'an's binding before conservation
Before conservation
Qur'an's binding after conservation
After conservation
Marginal decoration with handwritten annotation
Marginal decoration with handwritten annotation

The Qur’an was sent out for conservation in order to stabilize it for digitization and handling. The volume had undergone some previous repairs and was re-bound sometime during the 18th or 19th century. The envelope flap, which extends from the back cover of the volume and folds up to cover its fore edge, was very weak at the hinges and became detached during the conservator’s examination. The binding was also failing, causing some leaves to loosen and begin to detach. We sent the volume to Etherington Conservation Services in North Carolina, where conservators reattached and reinforced the envelope flap, repaired minor damage to the covers, re-sewed the binding, and re-covered the spine. While the binding was removed, they scanned the pages to create a digital copy of the book.

 

 

Decoration within the text
Decoration within the text

As a result of this work, this historic Qur’an is stable enough for handling and display, and the digital images can be made available online. This will allow researchers to view the Qur’an’s beautifully illuminated pages and intricate marginal decorations without putting stress on the volume. It will also open up many possibilities for research projects, such as a potential project to decipher and translate the annotations that appear throughout the volume. The digital collection is coming soon!

Page with marginal decoration and decoration within the text

 

Saints In Print – An Example From Our Rare Book Collection

The commemoration of All Saint’s Day (also known in some quarters as “All Hallows’ Day,” “Hallowmas,” “Feast Of All Saints,” or “Solemnity of All Saints”) recognizes the lives and legacy of saints and martyrs in history and is celebrated not only in the United States, but globally.  It is a Christian-based holiday that is observed every year on November 1st among Western Churches and the first Sunday after Pentecost in Eastern Rite Churches.  The traditional rituals found to be connected with All Saints’ Day include personal reflection and formal remembrance combined with a religious service to honor those who are recognized for their exceptional piety.  Their tales are often recounted in print form and available to future generations to discover.

In our Rare Book Collection, a number of texts on individual saints dating back to the 15th century which are worth reading in a wide-range of languages including Latin, French, German, and others.  Among our earliest American published volumes is the work entitled – Christ In His Church: Her Dogmas and Her Saints, With Moral Reflections, Critical Illustrations, and Explanatory Notes (New York: Thomas Kelly, 1875) by noted author Henry Rutter.  He provided the context of how the work of saints was instrumental in the overall work of devotion to the Catholic Church with a particular emphasis on female deities including St. Brigid, St. Margaret, St. Cecily, St. Lucy and others.  This volume is a prime example of a mid-19th century devotional text that highlights the contributions of saints with their influence on Church teachings.     

For more information there are many books, articles, and other resources including the Internet where more information can be found regarding the sainthood and the holiday of All Saints’ Day.  The following a few starting works, but not limited to these examples, for those who want to learn more can connect to the following link –

http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/results?vid=0&sid=d3248b17-f009-493f-8072-85abf8698d21%40sessionmgr101&bquery=%22saint*%22&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPWNvb2tpZSxpcCxzc28mdHlwZT0wJnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d

Individual saints can also be researched by name and as part of a collective narrative on the history and contributions of those whose legacy endures to this day.

For more information please feel free to contact us at (973) 275-2378 or via e-mail at: archives@shu.edu

New Exhibit Features Anti-Catholic Ephemera

The papists bloody oath of secrecy, and letany of intercession for the carrying on of this present plot
The papists bloody oath of secrecy, and letany of intercession for the carrying on of this present plot. Robert Bolron, London: Printed for R. Taylor, 1680.

A new exhibit in the Msgr. William Noé Field Archives & Special Collections Center Reading Room highlights materials from our Anti-Catholic Ephemera collection. This small collection dates from 1765-1952.  It contains several pamphlets expressing anti-Catholic sentiment and denouncing Catholicism. Although they are not displayed in this exhibit, the collection also includes some materials relating to the Philadelphia Nativist Riots, in which Protestant nativist groups lashed out against Irish Catholic immigrants and burned several Catholic churches. In addition to materials from the Anti-Catholic Ephemera collection, several of the items in the exhibit are from our Rare Books collection.

Let's test Catholic loyalty
“Let’s Test Catholic Loyalty” – a pamphlet by the Knights of Columbus in response to Anti-Catholicism, 1952.

Anti-Catholicism grew out of the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, and continues in some forms today. It was most common in countries that were majority-Protestant, such as Great Britain and the United States, and sometimes led to discrimination and violence. Catholics were often derogatorily referred to as “papists” or “Romanists,” and were suspected of remaining loyal to the Vatican rather than their countries. Anti-Catholic sentiment overlapped with movements such as nativism when majority-Protestant countries experienced an influx of Catholic immigrants.

Some of the items featured in this exhibit include “Let’s Test Catholic Loyalty,” a 1952 pamphlet produced by the Knights of Columbus as a response to Anti-Catholicism; Popish idolatry; a discourse delivered in the Chapel of Harvard-College in Cambridge, New-England by Jonathan Mayhew, 1765; and The papists bloody oath of secrecy, and letany of intercession for the carrying on of this present plot by Robert Bolron, printed in London in 1680. This document relates to the “Popish plot” and murder of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, an English magistrate whose mysterious death stirred up Anti-Catholic turmoil in England.

For more information about the exhibit or the Anti-Catholic Ephemera collection, stop by the Archives or contact us at archives@shu.edu or (973)761-9476.

Popish Idolatry: A Discourse
Popish idolatry; a discourse delivered in the Chapel of Harvard-College in Cambridge, New-England. Jonathan Mayhew, 1765
The narrative of Mr. William Boys, citizen of London
The narrative of Mr. William Boys, citizen of London. William Boys, London: Printed for Dorman Newman …, 1680.
A discourse on the errors of popery
A discourse on the errors of popery : delivered in the chapel of the University in Cambridge, September 4, 1793, at the lecture founded by the Honourable Paul Dudley, Esquire. John Lathrop, D.D.A.A.S. Pastor of the Second Church in Boston, 1793
"Carta em que um amigo sendo consultado por outro sobre a inteligencia da lei do primeiro de Agosto de 1774", Anti-Church Law Explained
“Carta em que um amigo sendo consultado por outro sobre a inteligencia da lei do primeiro de Agosto de 1774”, Anti-Church Law Explained. Lisboa: Na Regia Officina Typografica, 1774.

 

New Acquisitions in the Archives & Special Collections Center

The Msgr. William Noé Field Archives & Special Collections Center recently acquired two new rare books:

Ordo Romanvs De Officio Missae, authored by Georg Cassander (1513-1566), was issued with another of Cassander’s works, Litvrgica de ritv et ordine dominicae coenae celebrandae, and sold as a single volume. Working towards the reunification of Catholics and Protestants, Cassander sought common ground in the teachings of the early Church. In his writings, he draws upon the importance of the immutable texts of the Mass, and references ancient, medieval, and modern writers to state his case.

 Georg Cassander. Ordo Romanus de officio Missae. Issued with Litvrgica de ritv et ordine dominicae coenae celebrandae. Cologne: Heirs of A. Birckmann, 1561.
Georg Cassander. Ordo Romanvs de officio Missae. Issued with Litvrgica de ritv et ordine dominicae coenae celebrandae. Cologne: Heirs of A. Birckmann, 1561.

Pacôme’s description of the Cistercian monastery at La Trappe, Description du plan en relief de l’abbaye de la Trappe, features etched illustrations showing exteriors and interiors of the abbey, scenes of daily life, agriculture, communal meals, and the journey of the exiled James II of England. The description was meant to accompany a sixteen-by-fourteen foot scale model of the monastery, commissioned by the Abbot to be presented to Louis XVIII.

Pacôme, Delorme, frère. fl. 1708. Description Du Plan En Relief De L'Abbaye De La Trappe. Paris: J. Collombat 1708.
Pacôme, Delorme, frère. fl. 1708. Description Du Plan En Relief De L’Abbaye De La Trappe. Paris: J. Collombat 1708.

 

Cassander, Georg (1513-1566). Ordo Romanvs De Officio Missae. [Issued with: Litvrgica de ritv et ordine dominicae coenae celebrandae]. Cologne: Heirs of A. Birckmann 1561.

Pacôme, Delorme, frère. fl. 1708. Description Du Plan En Relief De L’Abbaye De La Trappe. Paris: J. Collombat 1708.

Highlights from the Rare Book Collection: Aldine Press

These two volumes of the works of Cicero, which are part of the Tullio Ascarelli collection, are examples of books from the Aldine press. The Aldine press was founded in Venice by Aldus Manutius (Aldo Manuzio, c. 1449-1515). Manutius was educated as a humanist and sought to preserve classical Greek literature by printing many significant Greek works. He also printed notable Latin and Italian authors. Manutius is also known for his contributions to typography. His firm was the first to use italic type, and introduced books in the octavo format, which can be considered as the equivalent of the modern paperback. His goal was to print small, inexpensive books for scholars. Books published by the Aldine press can be identified by the unique printer’s device, which depicts a dolphin and an anchor. After his death, Manutius’ firm was carried on by his son Paulus, followed by his grandson, Aldus.

M.T. Ciceronis epistolarum ad Atticum, ad Brutum was printed in 1513, presumably under the direction of Aldus Manutius. Rhetoricorum ad C. Herennium was printed under the direction of Manutius’ son Paulus (Paolo) in 1559.

M.T. Ciceronis epistolarum ad Atticum, ad Brutum // ad Quintum fratrem, libri XX.
M.T. Ciceronis epistolarum ad Atticum, ad Brutum // ad Quintum fratrem, libri XX.
Rhetoricorum ad C. Herennium libri IIII. incerto auctore
Rhetoricorum ad C. Herennium libri IIII. incerto auctore.

References:

“Aldus Manutius.” In The Columbia Encyclopedia, by Paul Lagasse, and Columbia University. 7th ed. Columbia University Press, 2017. 

“Aldus (?1450 – 1515).” In Thames & Hudson Dictionary of the Italian Renaissance, The, edited by J. R. Hale. Thames & Hudson, 2006.

“Aldine Collection.” Stanford Libraries.

Cicero, Marcus Tullius, and Aldo Manuzio, Andreas Torresanus, de Asula, Titus Pomponius Atticus, M Junius Brutus. M.T. Ciceronis epistolarum ad Atticum, ad Brutum // ad Quintum fratrem, libri XX. Venetiis : In aedibus Aldi, et Andreae soceri., mense Iunio 1513.

Cicero, Marcus Tullius, and Paolo Manuzio. Rhetoricorum ad C. Herennium libri IIII. incerto auctore. Venetiis: Apud Paulum Manutium, 1559 [Colophon: Venetiis, apvd Pavlvm Manvtivm, Aldi filivm, M.D. LIX.].

Highlights from the Rare Book Collection: Directorium inquisitorum

The Directorium inquisitorum was written by Spanish theologian Nicholas Eymeric (c. 1320-1399), who was appointed grand inquisitor of Aragon in 1357. Intended to be a guide for inquisitors, the Directorium inquisitorum elaborates on hundreds of heresies and prosecution procedures, categories of offenses like witchcraft, as well as the belief system of the Inquisition. It also influenced later texts such as the Malleus maleficarum (Hammer of witches, 1486), and remained an important volume well into the 17th century.

The text was first printed as early as 1376. This edition, printed in 1578, is the second Italian printing, and third edition overall. It includes commentary by Francesco Pegna (Peña, c. 1540-1612), an Aragonese canonist with connections to the Roman Curia.

Directorium inquisitorum R.P.F. Nicolai Eymerici
Directorium inquisitorum R.P.F. Nicolai Eymerici, … ; Nicolai Eymeric; Frances Peña. Romae: In aedibus pop. rom., 1578.

Directorium inquisitorum R.P.F. Nicolai Eymerici, … ; Nicolai Eymeric; Frances Peña. Romae: In aedibus pop. rom., 1578.

Reading Ancient Éire – Oldest Volumes in the Setonia Irish Collection

When it comes to understanding print culture and erudition potential in seventeenth century Ireland this era provided an early look at how published communication would take on deeper and more wide-spread significance over time  As scholar Raymond Gillespie noted in his work – Reading Ireland : Print, Reading and Social Change in Early Modern Ireland (Manchester University Press, 2005)  he wrote that the early-mid 1600s was a burgeoning and “revolutionary” time in the Irish publishing industry which fit natural learning objectives and needs.  In other words . . .

“The conditions of print for instance, instructed their followers how to read the Bible, and lawyers and politicians thought they knew how statutes could best be read. These social, political, economic, institutional and cultural frames which surrounded both reading and printing provide a point of departure in understanding the world of print in early modern Ireland.”

Gillespie went on to note that this was an era when the oral tradition was giving way to a growing print culture.  In addition, those of the middle and upper class typically viewed manuscripts as “sources of authority” when it came to the recording and transferal of information as found on the printed page.  The status symbol of collecting books was rated high among those who had the means to purchase and preserve them.  Gillespie went on to add that . . .

“Books by their ability to spread ideas, in conjunction with manuscripts and the spoken word, could be either socially cohesive or disruptive. They also had another more tangible social attribute since the book as object also had the power to carry a wide range of messages. The collecting of books for display in private libraries, for example, was seen as an indicator of social status. A large library, whether read or not, could act as a sign of learning, or pretention to learning.”

With this context in mind, latter day scribes, publishers, and book collectors have provided the foundation for libraries and related information centers to promote educational support on various levels including that of our Irish texts holdings at Seton Hall University.

Since the early 1950s, the library of noted writer and bibliophile Meagher Joseph (M.J.) MacManus (1888-1951) have been housed on the campus of Seton Hall University.  The diversity of the titles collected during his lifetime numbered in the thousands and have been the core of a consolidated Irish-centered collection that actively serves our research community to this day.  The vision of MacManus went back centuries and covers a wide-range of subject areas with a particular emphasis on history, biography, political science, and religion among other themes that make up the Irish experience.  There were also no limits imposed on how old the books had to be when it came to building his substantial library.  With this in mind, the lasting legacy of his bibliography contains volumes dating to the 1600s and leading up to his untimely death during the early 1950s.

Among the three oldest surviving volumes found in our combined Irish collections are ones found in English, French, Latin, and/or Irish with each constituting their own story within a story based on the content and what the seventeenth century reader learned and what remains by way of reference text for the reader of these works.  Included are the following examples . . .

Le primer report des cases & matters en ley resolue & adiudge en les Courts del Roy en Ireland [1604-1612], by Sir John Davies and Ireland, Courts, 1st ed. (Dublin: Iohn Franckton, 1615)

Le primer report des cases & matters en ley resolue & adiudge en les Courts del Roy en Ireland

This work was a French language publication and translates to – “A report of cases and matters in law: resolved and adjudged in the King’s Courts in Ireland [1604-1612]” in the English and is a legal review and digest-oriented volume.  The monarch who ruled over Ireland during this time period was James I (1566-1625) who reigned over Éire from 1603 until his death two decades later and held jurisdiction over the isle during the time this work came to light.  This text was also one of the earliest legal reference works of any type found in our holdings catalog.

Analecta sacra, nova et mira de rebus catholicorvm in Hibernia pro fide & religione gestis, diuisa in tres partes, quarum I continet semestrem grauaminum relationem, secunda hac editone nouis adauctam additamentis & notis illustratam, Il paraenesin ad martyres designatos, III processum martyrialem quoru(n)dam fidei pugilum, by David Rothe (Coloniae, apud Stephanum Rolinum, 1617) [581 pp.]

Analecta sacra, nova et mira de rebus catholicorvm in Hibernia

An early Latin text related to Ireland when translated into English reads – “(Analecta sacra) and for the faith of the new religion in Ireland, and, the marvelous tales of the deeds of the things Catholic, divided into three parts, one of which contains the six months old burdens the relations of 1. the second edition of this new (adauctam) additions in terms of (notis) illustrate, 2. (paraenesin) to the elect, and the martyrs, 3. the process of martyrialem (Quorum dam) of champions.”  Among those named in the text are Dermod O’Hurley and Richard Creagh, Archbishops of Cashel and Armagh and Primate of Ireland respectively who exercised spiritual guidance to their congregations during the early-mid seventeenth century and provides the researcher with a review of early Irish ecclesiastical history.

Tiomna Nuadh ar dTighearna agus ar Slanuigheora Iósa Criosd: ar na ṫarrv₁ng go firn̄eac̓ as Greigis go Giodeilg, by William Daniel and Andrew Sall; Robert Boyle, ed.; Huilliam O’Domhnuill, trans. 1st ed. (A Lunnduin: Ar na c̓ur a geló rē Robert Ebheringṫam, an blíaḋain dc̳óis an Tiġęrna, 1681) [364 pps.]

Tiomna Nuadh ar dTighearna agus ar Slanuigheora Iósa Criosd

This tome when loosely translated into the English centers upon the “New Testament and Our Jesus Christ” as its central theme.  The book proper was financed by a gentleman by the name of Robert Boyle (1627-1691) who also served as editor of the work.  The rarity of Irish language works within our collection (and beyond) was based on limited economic opportunities, total number of Irish readers, and problems with surplus storage among others factors that faced those who had no access to these specialized writings.  However, certain texts such as these were connected to religious reference and in the vernacular of the citizenry at large.

Within the broader context of Irish history, these books were published a few decades after the Nine Years’ War of 1594 and the flight of Hugh O’Neil and Red Hugh O’Donnell against Elizabeth I in Ulster, establishment of the Plantation of Ulster by Scottish Presbyterians in 1607 and a prelude to the Irish Rebellion of 1641.  From here further works were produced that highlighted circle of life in Éire representative of the leaders, religious, and others who contributed to its historical development overall.

For more information and questions about these and other books in our library please consult our Irish Studies Research Guide for more information and details and/or contact Alan Delozier, University Archivist via e-mail at – Alan.Delozier@shu.edu

 

 

Adopt a Book: Charles Moore’s A full inquiry into the subject of suicide, 1790

The Archives and Special Collections Center is launching a new Adopt a Book program! This program gives donors the opportunity to contribute to the conservation of specific items from our collection that interest them. Each month, we will feature a different adoptable book here on our blog. To learn more about the program, or to make a donation, please visit our Adopt a Book page.

A full inquiry into the subject of suicide. To which are added (as being closely connected with the subject) two treatises on duelling and gaming by Charles Moore

Charles Moore (1743-1811) was a rector and vicar of the Church of England. He was born in London in 1743, and during his career he worked in churches throughout England. In 1792 he was appointed to the College of Six Preachers of Canterbury Cathedral, a distinguished group of priests who were called upon to preach both at the Cathedral and in their own parishes.

A full inquiry into the subject of suicide

A full inquiry into the subject of suicide is Moore’s most significant scholarly work. It was written as a response to Hume’s 1783 Essay on Suicide. While Hume argues that suicide can be justified and even preferable in some cases, Moore contends that any form of suicide is morally wrong and an affront to God. He includes an extensive literature review that is a great resource on attitudes towards suicide in the 18th century. He also wrote two treatises on dueling and gaming and their relation to suicide, which are included at the end of the volume.

Front cover of A full inquiry into the subject of suicide
Front cover of A full inquiry into the subject of suicide

The Archives and Special Collections Center holds a rare copy of A full inquiry into the subject of suicide. While the work was originally published as a two volume set, the Archives’ copy contains both volumes and the two treatises on dueling and gaming bound together as one. This copy is in need of conservation treatment to clean and repair its leather spine, reattach its back cover and some of its leaves, and mend damaged areas on its covers. You can help support the conservation of this important work! Any donation toward preservation of this rare volume would be gratefully accepted. To donate, please visit our Adopt a Book page.

Archives News: Conservation of Notes on the State of Virginia by Thomas Jefferson

The Archives and Special Collections Center recently had conservation work performed on some important pieces from the collection. One of these is a 1787 edition of Thomas Jefferson’s Notes on the State of Virginia. This edition was the first English-language edition of the text that was made widely available. (Its very first printing in 1785 was a small run of only 200 copies, which Jefferson distributed himself to friends and colleagues.) Notes on the State of Virginia was the only one of Jefferson’s books to be published in his lifetime, under his supervision. The copy held by the Archives and Special Collections Center still contains the fold-out maps and tables, which were frequently removed from this type of work in the past and are rarely found intact.

Notes on the State of Virginia before treatment, showing the fold out map settled at a slight angle and damage to the leaves, especially near the bottom of the spine.
Notes on the State of Virginia before treatment, showing the fold out map settled at a slight angle and damage to the leaves, especially near the bottom of the spine.
Notes on the State of Virginia after treatment, showing the leaves and cover attachment mended and the map re-attached to sit correctly in the volume.
Notes on the State of Virginia after treatment, showing the leaves and cover attachment mended and the map re-attached to sit correctly in the volume.

While the book is overall well-preserved, at 230 years old it was in need of some conservation treatment in order to make it stable enough for handling and display. In particular, the leather covers were desiccated and especially worn around the corners. The covers had detached from the text block, and were reattached at some point in the past with black cloth tape. These types of repairs can often do more damage than good, and in this case the tape had discolored the leather on the spine and left adhesive residue. The large map at the front of the volume had a tear running from its attachment to the text block to its first vertical fold, and many of the pages had small tears, creases, and surface staining. To address these issues, we took the volume to the Conservation Center for Art and Historic Artifacts (CCAHA) in Philadelphia.

Damage caused by the use of adhesive tape to reattach the book's covers.
Damage caused by the use of adhesive tape to reattach the book’s covers.

Conservators at CCAHA used a variety of techniques to correct the condition issues while preserving as much of the original binding as possible. The desiccated leather was consolidated—a technique in which a solution is used to penetrate the leather and adhere the leather fibers together. The black tape was removed from the book’s spine along with the spine leather, which was too damaged to salvage. The spine was then cleaned and re-covered with new leather dyed to match the existing covers. New endbands, additional sewing supports at the top and bottom of the spine, were also added to match the style of the old ones. They surface-cleaned accumulated dirt from the pages and mended the tear in the fold-out map. The covers were humidified and flattened, then re-attached to the text block. A custom clamshell-type box was created for the book, using archival materials.

Before treatment: abraded covers and amateur tape repair.
Before treatment: abraded covers and amateur tape repair.
After treatment: leather consolidated and spine repaired, with the leather toned to match the new material to the original covers.
After treatment: leather consolidated and spine repaired, with the leather toned to match the new material to the original covers.

Now that the volume has undergone treatment, the book can be handled and displayed without fear of causing further damage to the volume. Since care was taken to match the original materials and style, the repairs made to the binding keep the original character of the volume while greatly improving the book’s stability. With these measures, we will be able to have this treasure of American history in our collection for the next 230 years!

Adopt a Book: I fioretti di S. Francesco

The Archives and Special Collections Center is launching a new Adopt a Book program! This program gives donors the opportunity to contribute to the conservation of specific items from our collection that interest them. Each month, we will feature a different adoptable book here on our blog. To learn more about the program, or to make a donation, please visit our Adopt a Book page.

I fioretti di S. Francesco, Il can del sole, Le considerazioni svlle stimmate by Duilio Cambellotti, 1926

I fioretti di S. Francesco translates to Little Flowers of St. Francis. It is a collection of readings about St. Francis, compiled by an unknown author in the 14th century. The Archives and Special Collections Center holds a 1926 copy of Little Flowers that is one of a limited run of the text which features illustrations and covers created by Italian Art Nouveau artist Duilio Cambellotti. The distinctive wooden front cover is milled to give it a curving shape, and is inset with metal decoration. Striking, brightly colored illustrations depict scenes from the text.

Wooden front cover with metal inset design.
Wooden front cover with metal inset design.

Duilio Cambellotti was born in Rome in 1876. He originally studied accounting, but soon turned to the arts. He became involved in many aspects of the arts, including painting, sculpture, theater, and design, and was influential in the Italian Arts & Crafts and Art Nouveau movements. Cambellotti was especially well known for his Art Nouveau style illustrations and his furniture design.

Illustration depicting St. Francis surrounded by animals and nature.
Illustration depicting St. Francis surrounded by animals and nature.

The Archives’ copy of I fioretti is in need of conservation work to repair damage to the spine resulting from stress on the heavy wooden cover, and mending of minor tears and losses to the leaves of the volume. You can help support the conservation of this important work! Any donation toward preservation of this rare volume would be gratefully accepted. To donate, please visit our Adopt a Book page.