Object of the Week: “Far Away and Long Ago” by William Henry Hudson

William Henry Hudson
“Far Away and Long Ago”
Printed for members of the Limited Editions Club by Guillermo Kraft ltda., Buenos Aires:  1943.


FEBRUARY IS LIBRARY LOVER’S MONTH!

Library Lover’s Month is dedicated to the people who love whole buildings devoted to the reading, housing, organizing, categorizing, finding, studying, preserving and otherwise loving books.[1]  Libraries are sanctuaries, offering safe spaces for study, reflection and enjoyment.  Libraries indulge our desire to acquire knowledge – they are essentially ‘places of information.’[2]  When we think about libraries, we often think about a building brimming with shelves of books on all topics.   However, there is more to libraries than just books.  They are community hubs supported by librarians who fulfill multiple roles as information experts, subject matter specialists, program organizers, educators, community builders and partners in research. Seton Hall University contains a number of libraries across its three campuses including the Walsh Library, Interprofessional Health Sciences Library, Valente Italian Library, Turro Seminary Library and Law Library.  The Walsh Library also houses the Department of Archives and Special Collections and the Walsh Gallery which care for rare books, manuscripts, art and artifacts and hosts spaces for exhibitions, programs and displays.[3]

The book featured in this post, “Far Away and Long Ago” by William Henry Hudson, recollects the author’s early life, between the ages of four and twelve, which were spent in Argentina.  It is part of the Rare Book

Image of William Henry Hudson
Portrait of William Henry Hudson by Raúl Rosarivo from “Far Away and Long Ago”

Collection, housed in the Department of Archives and Special Collections. This limited-edition book had a run of just fifteen hundred copies and was designed by Alberto Kraft.  The volume in the Seton Hall Archives is signed by Kraft and illustrator Raúl Rosarivo.  This edition is bound in cowhide with undressed leather on the lower portion and features laced edges. [4]  The materials used in the binding reflect William Henry Hudson’s childhood, much of which was spent in the rugged pampas of Argentina, where his parents raised sheep, though the region is known for its free-ranging cattle.  These formative experiences in nature would profoundly impact his future.  As an adult, Hudson would achieve recognition as an author, naturalist, and ornithologist.  He was lauded for his exotic romances, especially “Green Mansions” which was published in 1904.  “Far Away and Long Ago” lovingly recounts his childhood — roaming the pampas at liberty, studying the plant and animal life, and observing both natural and human phenomena on the harsh frontier.  At age 15, he suffered an illness which would impact his health adversely for the remainder of his life.  Around this period of infirmity, he read Charles Darwin’s “Origin of Species” which reaffirmed his interest in the natural world.[5]

Illustration of a man by Raúl Rosarivo from “Far Away and Long Ago”
Illustration by Raúl Rosarivo from “Far Away and Long Ago”

Though William Henry Hudson may not be a household name today, he had many admirers in his time.  In 1934, renowned author Ernest Hemingway wrote a list of book recommendations to a young, aspiring writer. It included William Henry Hudson’s “Far Away and Long Ago” in addition to books by celebrated authors such as Stephen Crane, e.e. cummings, Leo Tolstoy, Emily Bronte, Fyodor Dostoyevsky and James Joyce.[6]  Hudson’s book was also among the objects auctioned from The Private Collection of President and Mrs. Ronald Reagan at Christie’s auction house in 2016.[7]  Praise for Hudson’s writing consistently mentions his palpable imagery, as was noted in this thoughtful review on amazon.com:

“This book was like knocking on an old friend’s door, being welcomed in and settling in front of a fire with a glass of something in one’s hand. The author then talks, gently and beautifully, weaving this picture of his early life. He brings his characters to life and describes the birds and other creatures so well, I felt as if I was there with him, every time I picked up the book to read. A gentle lovely story of a young boy’s steps from childhood.” – L.M. Gainsford[8]

 


The images and materials shown here are but a small part of the vast patrimony available to students, faculty and researchers.  For access to this or other objects in our collections, complete a research request form to set up an appointment or contact us at 973-761-9476. 

 

[1] http://www.librarysupport.net/librarylovers/, accessed 2/16/2021.

[2] http://www.ilovelibraries.org/what-libraries-do, accessed 2/16/2021.

[3] https://library.shu.edu/home accessed 2/16/2021, accessed 2/16/2021.

[4] http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?vid=4&sid=b64ff686-5122-4343-b1c9-852f6588dd78%40sessionmgr103&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPXNzbyZzaXRlPWVkcy1saXZl#AN=sth.ocn542094967&db=cat00991a, accessed 2/16/2021.

[5] https://www.britannica.com/biography/W-H-Hudson, accessed 2/16/2021.

[6] https://www.openculture.com/2013/05/ernest_hemingways_reading_list_for_a_young_writer_1934.html, accessed 2/16/2021.

[7] https://www.christies.com/lot/lot-limited-editions-club-hudson-wh-far-6018661/?lid=1&from=relatedlot&intobjectid=6018661, accessed 2/16/2021.

[8] https://www.amazon.com/Far-Away-Long-Ago-Childhood/dp/0907871747, accessed 2/16/2021.

Object of the Week: Mangbetu Effigy Jug

Mangbetu Effigy Jug (reproduction)
Teaching Collection – Seton Hall University Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology Collection
T2017.01.0009
Courtesy of the Walsh Gallery

 

CELEBRATING AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY MONTH 2021

This year’s annual celebration of African American History Month is anchored by the theme “Black Family: Representation, Identity and Diversity,” which focuses on the African diaspora and the spread of Black families across the United States.  This reproduction from Seton Hall University’s Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology is from the Mangbetu peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa.  Like other Central and West African groups in the United States, the first Congolese arrived in the Americas as enslaved people during the transatlantic slave trade which endured from the 16th to the 19th century.    Congolese people were often taken to locales in Louisiana and South Carolina.  People from West and Central African regions comprised almost 40% of enslaved peoples in the Americas.[1]

Mangbetu refers to an amalgam of linguistically and culturally related people in the northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The group includes the Mangbetu, Meegye, Makere, Malele, Popoi and Abelu. These groups share the common language known as Kingbetu.[2]  Beginning in the 1960s, a new influx of voluntary immigrants from the Democratic Republic of the Congo arrived in the United States, primarily to pursue an education.  Immigration from the country to the United States rose again in the 1990s.  However, this time, Congolese people arrived as refugees due to civil conflicts, violence and economic hardship.[3]  The United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees reports that between 2008 and 2013, approximately 11,000 Congolese refugees arrived in the United States, settling primarily in Texas, Arizona, Kentucky, and New York.[4]

Despite this fraught history, the Mangbetu have held fast to many of their rich cultural traditions.  They are especially known for their pottery, metal work and as makers of musical instruments.  Women potters would have been the primary makers of effigy jugs like this figurative vessel with its characteristic dark, burnished surface.  Though the Mangbetu still make jugs like these, they are now sold to tourists and art collectors rather than used in daily life. [5]  The elaborate coiffure depicted on this jug is characteristic of a traditional Mangbetu woman and is not idealized.

Contemporary Ivory Coast artist Laetitia Ky is inspired by traditional hair styles from African peoples such as the Mangbetu.  Her art is a fusion of hair, design and sculpture.  Ky ‘sculpts’ her hair into the traditional forms she finds in archival images of African women.  Ky then photographs her style and juxtaposes her image next to the historic photograph that inspired her.  She also teaches “Ky-braid” workshops to teach others how to style their hair in traditional African ways.  Ky uses hair as a form of social justice – merging cultural and feminine pride while bringing awareness to issues such as violence against women, gender parity, colonialism and bullying.  Ky uses her TikTok and Twitter accounts to reach the public.[6]

Laetitia Ky (left) with archival image of an unknown Mangbetu woman that inspired her.

This video shows an array of hairstyles from Africa such as the types that Ky is inspired by.  You can see the Mangbetu hairstyle similar to the effigy jug around the 3:30 timestamp in this celebration of hair.

 


The Walsh Gallery has a considerable collection of fine art, artifacts and archeological specimens for use by faculty, students and researchers. For access to this or other objects in our collections, contact us at 973-275-2033 or walshgallery@shu.edu to make a research appointment. 

 

 

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_slave_trade, accessed 1/26/2021.

[2] https://thisisafrica.me/african-identities/mangbetu-people-drc/, accessed 1/26/2021.

[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congolese_Americans#cite_note-Africansdescend-11, accessed 1/25/2021.

[4] https://www.cdc.gov/immigrantrefugeehealth/profiles/congolese/population-movements/index.html, accessed 1/25/2021.

[5] https://spectrumartsincblog.com/2015/07/25/the-mangbetu-people-and-their-pottery/, accessed 1/25/2021.

[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laetitia_Ky, accessed 2/8/2021.

Object of the Week: Akabeko (Ox or Cow Toy)

Akabeko (Ox or Cow toy)
Painted and lacquered papier-mâché
3 ¾” H x 5 ְ⅝” W x 1 ⅞” D
Fukushima, Japan
2828
Seton Hall University Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology Collection

 

HAPPY NEW YEAR

2021 – YEAR OF THE OX

The Lunar New Year is primarily celebrated in Asian countries such as China, Vietnam, South Korea, Singapore, Tibet and Mongolia.  The festival has different names depending upon the country.  It is called Tết in Vietnam and Losar in Tibet.  The Lunar New Year represents new beginnings regardless of the region or country, though each region’s traditions vary.  The holiday occurs on the first new moon of the lunisolar calendar, which lasts roughly 354 days and is traditional to many east Asian countries, in contrast to the 365 day Gregorian calendar used in the United States. Traditionally, the festival was a ceremonial day to pray to gods and ancestors for a good planting and harvest season. The three main themes of the holiday are fortune, happiness, and health.

Each new year is associated with an animal sign from the zodiac.  The Lunar New Year marks the transition from one animal to the next and each has its own attributes. In order, the zodiac animals are: Rat, Ox, Tiger, Rabbit, Dragon, Snake, Horse, Goat, Monkey, Rooster, Dog and Pig.[1]  This year, 2021, is the Year of the Ox.  If you were born in an Ox year, you are diligent, dependable, strong and determined.  Oxen have traditional, conservative characteristics.[2]  If you would like to know what your zodiac animal is, you can look it up on this chart[3]:

Chart with the zodiac animals and which years in the past and future coincide with each animal

Unlike other Asian countries, Japan no longer celebrates Lunar New Year. In 1873, during the Meiji Restoration – the political revolution – Japan adopted the Gregorian calendar to put the country in step with the West.  Initially, this break with the traditional lunisolar calendar was strongly opposed.  Many Japanese continued to celebrate the Lunar New Year well into the 20th century, especially in rural areas. Eventually, the lunisolar calendar faded completely from daily life in Japan.[4] Today, the New Year in Japan is celebrated on December 31 and is known as Ōmisoka.[5]

Image of the Enzoji Temple, Japan
Enzoji Temple, Japan

Though Japan no longer celebrates the Lunar New Year as a whole, there are vestiges of the traditional celebration that hold fast.  “Little New Year,” or Koshōgatsu, is celebrated on January 15. For the New Year’s breakfast, it is still customary to eat azukigayu (rice porridge) with sweet, red azuki beans. In the past, after eating this meal, a divination ritual would then be performed by placing bamboo cylinders in the remaining porridge and leaving them overnight. The more rice that was stuck inside the cylinders the following morning, the better the harvest would be that year.  Today, some temples and shrines still perform the traditional divination rituals.[6]  Another custom that is held over from traditional Lunar New Year celebrations is to make and eat rice cakes (mochi).[7]

The object of the week is an ox is from the Seton Hall Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology. This toy is known as Akabeko (赤べこ), a legendary cow[8] from Japan, said to have helped build the famous Enzoji Buddhist Temple. It is one of the three main temples dedicated to Kokuzo Bosatsu, a bodhisattva whose wisdom was said to be as expansive as the universe.  The toy is made out of two pieces of wood covered with

Life-size akabeko outside the Enzoji Temple in Fukushima Prefecture
Life-size akabeko outside the Enzoji Temple in Fukushima Prefecture

papier-mâché, shaped and painted to look like a red cow or ox. One piece comprises the cow’s head and neck and the other, its body. The head and neck hang from a string which runs through the hollow body so that when the toy is moved, the head bobs up and down and side to side. The earliest akabeko toys were created in the late 16th or early 17th century.[9]    Today, the toy has become a symbol of the Fukushima Prefecture where the Enzoji Temple is located[10].


The Walsh Gallery has a considerable collection of fine art, artifacts and archeological specimens for use by faculty, students and researchers. For access to this or other objects in our collections, contact us at 973-275-2033 or walshgallery@shu.edu to make a research appointment. 

 

 

[1] https://chinesenewyear.net/zodiac/, accessed 1/28/2021.

[2] https://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/chinese-zodiac/ox.htm, accessed 1/28/2021.

[3] https://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/social_customs/zodiac/, accessed 1/28/2021.

[4] https://www.cheng-tsui.com/blog/why-doesn%E2%80%99t-japan-celebrate-the-lunar-new-year, accessed 2/3/2021.

[5] https://www.cheng-tsui.com/blog/why-doesn%E2%80%99t-japan-celebrate-the-lunar-new-year, accessed 2/3/2021.

[6] https://www.cheng-tsui.com/blog/why-doesn%E2%80%99t-japan-celebrate-the-lunar-new-year, accessed 2/3/2021.

[7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_New_Year, accessed 2/3/2021.

[8] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akabeko, accessed 2/1/2021.

[9] https://www.japan-guide.com/e/e7712.html, accessed 2/1/2021.

[10] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akabeko, accessed 2/1/2021.

Object of the Week: Guro Mask

Guro Mask (reproduction)
Teaching Collection – Seton Hall University Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology Collection
T2017.01.0001
Courtesy of the Walsh Gallery

 

SETON HALL UNIVERSITY CELEBRATES AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY MONTH

This year’s theme for African American History Month is “Black Family: Representation, Identity and Diversity.”  This theme illuminates the African diaspora and the spread of Black families across the United States.  This mask, from Seton Hall University’s Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology, is from the Guro (also Gouro) People of the Ivory Coast in West Africa.   This region of the continent was profoundly affected by the Transatlantic Slave Trade.  An estimated 12 to 12.8 million forced migrations of African people took place over the course of more than 400 years.  Those who survived the passage were enslaved in Europe and the Americas.[1]

Despite this trauma, West Africans and African Americans have retained many customs from their respective cultures.  Music and dance are two of the most prevalent ways humanity connects with the past, and masks are a powerful and important part of these traditions in West Africa.  In many African cultures, including the Guro, masks are potent instruments of unity, family and community.[2]  Used in traditional ceremonies and rites such as funerals, weddings and festivals, the masks are activated through music and dance, playing an important role in honoring ancestors and providing community members with palpable links to the past.[3]

Guro dancer performing
Guro Dancer performing
Courtesy of Danse traditionnelle du du centre-ouest de la Côte d’Ivoire (Zaouli) à la cérémonie de la flamme de la paix à Bouaké.
Feb 25, 2008
Courtesy of Zenman

In West Africa, secret societies are an important part of community life.   The Guro societies are called Je for females and Kne for males.  Only members of these secret societies may wear masks and perform in rituals honoring ancestors.[4]  Chika Okeke-Agula, a West African performer/curator/artist and art historian explained, “When fully activated, masks become ‘spirits made tangible’.”[5]  The mask provides an entry into the spirit world to channel the divine, summon ancestral wisdom, escort the departed, accompany initiates, reaffirm societal values, venerate the living, and to mark the natural cycles of existence, from birth to death, season to season.​[6]  The ceremonies in which masks are used are called ‘masquerades’ – interventions between the world of the living and the world of the ancestors. During masquerades, the full powers of the masks are released.[7]

The video below from UNESCO shows a masked Guro dancer wearing traditional clothing.  Dances are energetic and marked by quick footwork, accompanied by drumming and elaborate costumes.  This traditional music and dance known as Zaouli[8] plays an educational, playful and aesthetic role, contributes to environmental preservation, conveys the cultural identity of its bearers and promotes integration and social cohesion among community members.[9]


The Walsh Gallery has a considerable collection of fine art, artifacts and archeological specimens for use by faculty, students and researchers. For access to this or other objects in our collections, contact us at 973-275-2033 or walshgallery@shu.edu to make a research appointment. 

 

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_slave_trade#:~:text=Slaves%20were%20imprisoned%20in%20a,a%20span%20of%20400%20years, accessed 1/21/2021.

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaouli, accessed 1/21/2021.

[3] https://www.africancraftsmarket.com/products/african-masks/African-Guro-mask.html, accessed 1/21/2021.

[4] https://kwekudee-tripdownmemorylane.blogspot.com/2014/06/guro-gouro-people-artistic-mande-mask.html, accessed 1/25/2021.

[5] https://www.culturesofwestafrica.com/west-african-mask/, accessed 1/26/2021.

[6] Binkley DA. Masks and Masquerades. In: Peek PM, Yankah K, eds. African Folklore: An Encyclopedia. New York, NY, USA: Routledge; 2004:479-485.

[7] Akubor EO. Africans’ concept of masquerades and their role in societal control and stability: Some notes on the Esan people of southern Nigeria. Asian and African Studies. 2016;25(1):32-50.

[8] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaouli, accessed 1/26/2021.

[9] https://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/zaouli-popular-music-and-dance-of-the-guro-communities-in-cote-divoire-01255, accessed 1/26/2021.

Object of the Week: Seton Hall College School Bell

Seton Hall College School Bell
1856
Meneely Bell Foundry
bronze
Gift of the Seton Hall University Alumni Association
2019.14.0001
Walsh Gallery at Seton Hall University

 

WELCOME BACK FOR THE SPRING SEMESTER!

This mid-19th century bronze bell was originally located at the Seton Hall College campus in Madison, New Jersey. In the late 1960s, Dr. Louis de Crenascol, Chair of the Department of Art and Music, saw it for sale in an antique shop in nearby Summit.  The bell was purchased through an arrangement between Dr. de Crenascol, Norbert Kubilus – President of the Society for the Preservation of Setonia—and John L. Botti – Executive Secretary of the Alumni Association—and brought to Seton Hall University where it hung in the McLaughlin Library until the building was razed in the 1990s to make way for Jubilee Hall.  The bell then moved to the current Walsh Library and is presently on view in the Reading Room of the Department of Archives and Special Collections.[1]  The bell was manufactured by Meneely’s of Troy, New York, a foundry which was known for making school bells of 100 pounds or more.[2]

Bronze bells such as this one were commonly used in America from the 19th century until the mid-20th century and were rung to mark important times for students and teachers, such as to signal the beginning or end of the school day, classes or lunch breaks. They were intended to carry sound over a wide area in a world largely without clocks, wrist watches or cell phones to keep track of time.  For this reason, bronze, with its resonant qualities, was the metal of choice.[3]  Today, the old bronze school bell has largely been displaced by electric buzzers, public address (P.A.) systems or music.[4]   You can hear what the Seton Hall College bell might sound like by listening to this sound sample of a similar Meneely Bell of the period below.[5]

School house bells were often sold ready for installation, bundled with a frame, wheel and wood sills.  If you look closely at the image of Seton Hall

Diagram of the parts of a bell
Figure 1. https://www.pinterest.com/cpbellfoundry/_created/

College’s bell above, you will see horizontal arms that would have been attached to the frame to support the bell.  Bells would be placed in the upper part of a belfry, or belltower, with a rope hung from the wheel. School bells were typically between 20 and 28 inches across to produce a slightly higher pitch than church bells which, would have been larger to peal with a deeper sound. This detail regarding size and tone was important.  The public had to be able to distinguish between school, civic and church bells to avoid confusion.[6]

Church, clock and tower bells are also used to communicate with the public to commemorate important events such as the swearing in of an official or state leader, or religious rites including marriage and death.  Bells are frequently associated with the concepts of peace and freedom, but they can also mark specific times on a clock or serve as a percussive musical

Image of red and white mid-19th century schoolhouse with belfry
Image of mid-19th century schoolhouse with belfry in Maysville, Colorado. Courtesy of Jeffrey Beal, Colorado, USA. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Maysville_School_(6287064191).jpg

instrument.  The earliest archaeological evidence of bells dates from the 3rd millennium B.C.E. in the Yang Shao culture of Neolithic China.[7]  Bells figure prominently in the public imagination, especially literary works.  The Guardian has compiled a list of the 10 Best Bells in Literature. The list includes stories such as Macbeth by William Shakespeare, The Magician’s Nephew by C.S. Lewis, The Bells by Edgar Allan Poe and Notre Dame de Paris by Victor Hugo.  Check out the full list to see how many you have read.

 


The Walsh Gallery has a considerable collection of fine art, artifacts and archeological specimens for use by faculty, students and researchers. For access to this or other objects in our collections, contact us at 973-275-2033 or walshgallery@shu.edu to make a research appointment. 

 

[1] Interview with Alan Delozier by Meghan Brady, 10/08/2020.

[2] https://antiques.lovetoknow.com/collectibles/antique-school-house-bells accessed 1/19/2021

[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell#:~:text=The%20earliest%20archaeological%20evidence%20of,bells%20appear%20in%201000%20BC. Accessed 1/19/2021

[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/School_bell, accessed 1/19/2021.

[5] http://www.brosamersbells.com/hear.html, accessed 1/19/2021.

[6] https://antiques.lovetoknow.com/collectibles/antique-school-house-bells, accessed 1/19/2021.

[7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bell#:~:text=The%20earliest%20archaeological%20evidence%20of,bells%20appear%20in%201000%20BC, accessed 1/19/2021.

Object of the Week: Civil Defense Medical Corp Armband

Civil Defense Medical Corp Armband
embroidered textile
mid-20th century
Leonard Dreyfuss papers
MSS 0001
Courtesy of Archives and Special Collections

 

JANUARY IS NATIONAL BLOOD DONOR MONTH

            First observed in January 1970, National Blood Donor Month brings attention to the heightened need for blood and platelet donations in the winter months, typically the most difficult time of the year to meet

Notice of Re-Appointment to Board of Directors, The American Red Cross – Newark Chapter, January 26, 1943, Leonard Dreyfuss papers, MSS 0001, Courtesy of Archives and Special Collections.
Notice of Re-Appointment to Board of Directors
The American Red Cross – Newark Chapter
January 26, 1943
Leonard Dreyfuss papers (MSS 0001)
Courtesy of Archives and Special Collections

patients’ needs for these products.  Inclement weather and the onset of flu season shrinks the donor pool while demand increases.[1]  Though COVID-19 has altered our daily lives, hospitals and clinics still serve patients in need of blood transfusions. COVID-19 has forced many health care facilities to serve patients at a different capacity by temporarily closing clinics and suspending elective services and procedures or shifting to virtual care in many cases. Yet the need for blood still exists to perform transfusions in most emergent cases, such as traumas, cancer patients, orthopedic surgeries, and many others.  Unfortunately, while the need for blood is growing, fewer people are donating presently.[2]

Did you know that one in seven hospital patients will use blood?  Or that one in 83 births will require a blood transfusion?  If you know someone who has cancer, is pregnant, or has sickle-cell disease, then you might know someone who may need blood.  On December 31, 1969 President Richard Nixon proclaimed January 1970 as the first official observance of National Blood Donor Month as requested by Senate Joint Resolution 154, to

Certificate of Merit from American Red Cross – Newark Chapter 1943 Leonard Dreyfuss papers MSS 0001 Courtesy of Archives and Special Collections
Certificate of Merit from American Red Cross – Newark Chapter
1943
Leonard Dreyfuss Papers (MSS 0001)
Courtesy of Archives and Special Collections

pay tribute to voluntary blood donors and encourage new donors.[3]  The American Red Cross provides roughly 35% of donated blood in the United States, while community-based organizations provide 60% and the remaining 5% of the blood supply is collected directly by hospitals.[4]  The American Red Cross was founded in Dansville, New York in 1881 by Clara Barton, who served as a nurse during the American Civil War.[5]

These objects are from the Leonard Dreyfuss Collection on deposit at the university’s Archives and Special Collections.  Leonard Dreyfuss served as Chair of the Newark Chapter of the American Red Cross from 1956 to 1960, and was distinguished as an honorary director of the of the chapter for life.[6]  He also volunteered for the New Jersey Civil Defense which was formed by legislation in 1942 “to provide for the health, safety and welfare of the people of the State of New Jersey and to aid in the prevention of damage to and the destruction of property during any emergency.”[7] Dreyfuss also served as a trustee of the Newark Museum and the advisory board at Seton Hall University, which awarded him an honorary degree in 1950. Leonard Dreyfuss was born in Brooklyn, New York, on November 6, 1886.  In 1914, he joined the Newark Sign Company – an outdoor sign

Christmas Roll Call Acknowledgement Letter American Red Cross – Newark Chapter January 12, 1919 Leonard Dreyfuss papers MSS 0001 Courtesy of Archives and Special Collections
Christmas Roll Call Acknowledgement Letter
American Red Cross – Newark Chapter
January 12, 1919
Leonard Dreyfuss papers (MSS 0001)
Courtesy of Archives and Special Collections

advertising firm.  After 1923, he led a highly successful merger with several advertising companies which became known as U.A.C.  Dreyfuss rapidly moved up the executive ladder, becoming Vice President, President and finally, Chairman of the Board before retiring in 1965.  Leonard Dreyfuss died on December 29, 1969 in Essex Fells, New Jersey. [8]

The Leonard Dreyfus Papers show the namesake’s commitment to service, particularly his efforts with the Civil Defense and Newark Chapter of the American Red Cross. These materials are available to students, faculty and researchers.  For access, set up a research appointment online or contact us at 973-761-9476.

 


[1] https://www.few.org/national-blood-donor-month/ accessed 1/12/2021

[2] https://news.llu.edu/patient-care/why-giving-blood-necessary-during-pandemic accessed 1/12/2021

[3] https://www.adrp.org/NBDM accessed 1/12/2021 accessed 1/12/2021

[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Red_Cross#Blood_donation, accessed 1/12/2021.

[5] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clara_Barton, accessed 01/12/2021.

[6] https://archivesspace-library.shu.edu/repositories/2/resources/168, accessed 01/12/2021.

[7] http://ready.nj.gov/laws-directives/appendix-a.shtml, accessed 01/12/2021.

[8] https://archivesspace-library.shu.edu/repositories/2/resources/168, accessed 01/12/2021.

 

Object of the Week: Image of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

REMEMBERING DR. MARTIN LUTHER JR.

          January 18, 2021 marks the annual observance of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Day in honor of the Civil Rights leader’s life and legacy.  This day is one of service, not rest, encouraging all Americans to consider Dr. King’s work and honor his memory by volunteering in their communities.  Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Day became a federally recognized holiday in 1983 when President Ronald Reagan signed a bill into law, though the first official federal observance did not occur until 1986.[1]

Image of MLK day article by Lenora Cerrato
Nancy Forsberg Collection, MSS 22, Folder 718 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 1968 Courtesy of Archives and Special Collections

In 1964, Dr. King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.  When notified of his selection, he announced that he would turn over the prize money of $54,123 to the furtherance of the Civil Rights Movement.[2]  He was 35 years old at the time, and the youngest man to have received the award to that point.  The prize was bestowed upon Dr. King in recognition of his nonviolent campaign against racial segregation. Since 1901 when the first Nobel Prizes were awarded, recipients have been required to present a public lecture.[3]  You can hear Dr. King’s Nobel Lecture in Oslo, Norway on December 11, 1964 in the video below.  Dr. Clayborne Carson, Director of The King Institute at Stanford University, believes this lecture, which “lays out his goals for the remainder of his life” is one of his most important speeches.  In this speech, King addresses the problems of racial injustice, poverty and war as global evils and not a uniquely American problem.[4]

The Statement of the Clergy of Union (NJ) on the formation of the MLK Commission was issued just a little over a week after his death, demonstrating their devastation and the importance they placed on Dr. King and his work.

Upon Dr. King’s assassination on April 4, 1968, the Clergy Association of Union (New Jersey) composed a statement which was read at a memorial service for Dr. King.  The typed statement, as well as a printed copy from a local newspaper, was preserved by Rev. Nancy Forsberg of the First Congregational Church, where she served as pastor from 1967 until her death in 2000.[5] Like Dr. King, Reverend Nancy – as she was affectionately known by parishioners – was dedicated to interfaith and interracial understanding.  She formed an interfaith Bus Ministry which took participants on inspirational day, weekend, and overseas trips in the furtherance of peace and understanding between people of various faiths and backgrounds.  The Nancy Forsberg Papers, preserved at The

Newspaper clipping on 3 x 5 card from the Nancy Forsberg Collection
Nancy Forsberg Collection, MSS 22, Folder 718 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 1968 Courtesy of Archives and Special Collections

Department of Archives and Special Collections at Seton Hall University, contains numerous clippings, correspondence and ephemera she collected, including a file dedicated to the subject of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., revealing the importance of his work in parallel to her own efforts.  Though Rev. Forsberg’s papers date to the late 1960s, they still resonate today and ask us to reconsider her and Dr. King’s efforts for Civil Rights and social justice with a renewed sense of urgency.  These materials are available to students, faculty and researchers.  For access, set up a research appointment online or contact us at 973-761-9476.

Marvin Rich Statement on death of Martin Luther King Jr.
Nancy Forsberg Collection, MSS 22, Folder 718 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 1968 Courtesy of Archives and Special Collections

 

[1] https://www.al.com/news/2018/01/alabama_mississippi_only_2_sta.html, accessed 1/8/2021.

[2] https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/peace/1964/king/biographical/, accessed 1/8/2021.

[3] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u71K76y7jf8, accessed 1/8/2021.

[4]https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/clayborne-carson, accessed 1/8/2021.

[5] http://www.tributes.com/obituary/show/Nancy-E.-Forsberg-83332540, accessed 1/8/2021.

Object of the Week: Chimú Banded Hanging Pot

Banded Hanging Pot
Chimú
1000 – 1400
5” H x 5” W x 5” D
M83.1.1
Gift of Jack Noel Jacobsen Jr.
Seton Hall University Museum of Anthropology and Archeology

 

This pot was made in the Chimor Empire, which was one of the largest and most prosperous civilizations in South America between the 10th and 15th centuries, before being overtaken by the Inca around 1470.  The Chimú resided in fertile river valleys located on a strip of desert on the northern

Map of Chimu Empire
Map of Chimú Empire shown in yellow
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tahuantinsuyo-PeruBolivia.png

coast of present-day Peru. The region was favorable for crop irrigation and plentiful supplies of fish, both important drivers for their economy.  The Chimú, were comprised of many different ethnic groups owing to ongoing expansion into new regions.  Most citizens were artisans who used extensive trade networks to contribute to this flourishing culture.  This pot is an example of the empire’s distinctive monochromatic pottery which was utilitarian in nature, but the Chimú were also known for more elaborately decorated crafts made of precious metals such as the rattle pictured below.[1]

Chimú gold rattle
Chimú gold rattle, courtesy of the Art Institute of Chicago via https://www.ancient.eu/image/3795/chimu-gold-rattle/

The Chimú lived in urban settings and left behind many formidable examples of architecture. The former capital, Chan-Chan, not far from present-day Trujillo, contains 14 square miles of their former cityscape where streets, imposing walls, reservoirs and temples still stand.  The size of the ruins suggests the city was populated by thousands.[2]

Chan-Chan Ruins by Veronique Debord
Chan-Chan Ruins by Veronique Debord https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ChanChanCapitalChimu.jpg

 


The Walsh Gallery has a considerable collection of fine art, artifacts and archeological specimens for use by faculty, students and researchers. For access to this or other objects in our collections, contact us at 973-275-2033 or fill out a research request form to make a research appointment. 

 

 

[1] https://www.ancient.eu/Chimu_Civilization/, accessed 12/18/2020.

[2] https://www.britannica.com/topic/Chimu , accessed 12/18/2020.

 

Object of the Week: Kwanzaa Celebration Invitation

“Kwanzaa Celebration Invitation”
2006
Black Student Union vertical file
Seton Hall University Archives and Special Collections

 

HABARI GANI

Kwanzaa is a seven-day celebration of African American culture observed annually from December 26 through January 1.  During Kwanzaa, it is customary to greet friends and family with the phrase, “Habari gani,” meaning, “What is the news?”[1]  In response, one can reply with one of the seven different principles assigned to each day.  Every evening during Kwanzaa, a candle is lit on the kinara, or traditional candleholder, to honor the seven principles:

    • Umoja (Unity)
    • Kujichagulia (Self-determination)
    • Ujima (Collective Work and Responsibility)
    • Ujamaa (Cooperative economics)
    • Nia (Purpose)
    • Kuumba (Creativity)
    • Imani (Faith)

      Tech. Sgt. Jennifer Myers (above), 66th Air Base Wing noncommissioned officer in charge of the Military Equal Opportunity office, lights a candle in the Kinara. photo by Christopher Myers, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons
      Tech. Sgt. Jennifer Myers (above), 66th Air Base Wing noncommissioned officer in charge of the Military Equal Opportunity office, lights a candle in the Kinara. photo by Christopher Myers, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

These seven tenets of Kwanzaa, or Nguzo Saba, are collectively referred to as Kawaida, a Swahili word meaning “common.”[2]  The candles used in the kinara are red, green and black – each color having a different attribute.  The three red candles on the left of the kinara signify the blood shed in the fight for liberation, three green candles on the right stand for the future of Black liberation and the single black candle in the center symbolizes the people this celebration honors.[3]

“Annual Pre-Kwanzaa Celebration Invitation” Black Students Union vertical file, 2004, Archives and Special Collections, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ
“Annual Pre-Kwanzaa Celebration Invitation” Black Students Union vertical file, 2004, Archives and Special Collections, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ

Kwanzaa was first celebrated in 1966 when Maulana Karenga, a college professor of Africana studies at California State University in Long Beach, created the holiday to honor and celebrate pan-African culture.  Karenga said his goal was to “give Blacks an opportunity to celebrate themselves and their history, rather than simply imitate the practice of the dominant society.”[4]  At the time Karenga conceived of Kwanzaa, Los Angeles was reeling in the aftermath of the Watts Rebellion which devasted the south Los Angeles neighborhood in August 1965 after a traffic stop resulted in the arrest of a 21-year-old African American man, Marquette Frye.  For the next six days, violence and civil unrest rocked 46 square miles of Los Angeles.[5] It was against this political backdrop that Karenga sought to create a positive force for African Americans and African American culture.[6]  According to Karenga, Kwanzaa was partly inspired by the Zulu harvest festival, Umkhosi Wokweshwama, a five-day lunar ritual that takes place during the last full moon of the year.[7]

“Kwanzaa Celebration Invitation” Black Students Union vertical file, 2008, Archives and Special Collections, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ
“Kwanzaa Celebration Invitation” Black Students Union vertical file, 2008, Archives and Special Collections, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ

The name Kwanzaa is taken from the Swahili phrase “matunda ya kwanza,” meaning first fruits.  The extra “a” was added, said Karenga, to make the word Kwanzaa seven letters to enhance its symbolic power.[8]    Kwanzaa is a cultural event imbued with spiritual values, but it is not a religious observance.  People of all faiths may celebrate Kwanzaa and non-blacks can also observe the holiday.[9]  On his official Kwanzaa website, Dr. Karenga notes, “The holiday, then will of necessity, be engaged as an ancient and living cultural tradition which reflects the best of African thought and practice in its reaffirmation of the dignity of the human person in community and culture, the well-being of family and community, the integrity of the environment and our kinship with it, and the rich resource and meaning of a people’s culture.”[10]

 


The Department of Archives and Special Collections maintains vertical files of documents and materials related to African American Studies, Black Studies, African American Alumni Association/Council, African American Heritage Month, African American Students Association, Africana Studies, African Student Association, Black History Month, Women of Hope, Black Studies Center, Institute in Afro-American History and Culture, Rallies, and University of Sierra Leone Summer School.  The images accompanying this blog post show Annual Kwanzaa celebrations organized by the Black Student Union at Seton Hall University, part of this large collection of materials preserved by the university’s archives. These materials are available to students, faculty and researchers.  For access, complete a research request form to set up an appointment or contact us at 973-761-9476.

 

 

[1] http://anacostia.si.edu/exhibits/past_exhibtions/kwanzaa/kwanz.htm, accessed 12/15/2020.

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwanzaa, accessed 12/15/2020.

[3] https://www.womansday.com/life/a33663207/when-is-kwanzaa/, accessed 12/15/2020.

[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwanzaa#cite_note-5, accessed 12/15/2020.

[5] https://www.blackpast.org/african-american-history/frye-marquette-1944-1986/, accessed 12/15/2020.

[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watts_riots, accessed 12/15/2020.

[7] https://www.zululandnews.co.za/project/zulu-first-fruits-cultural-festival-umkhosi-woselwa/, accessed 12/15/2020.

[8] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwanzaa#cite_note-5, accessed 12/15/2020.

[9] https://www.history.com/news/5-things-you-may-not-know-about-kwanzaa, accessed 12/15/2020.

[10] https://www.officialkwanzaawebsite.org/, accessed 12/15/2020.

Object of the Week: The Birth of Our Saviour

Hercule Louis Catenacci
The Birth of Our Saviour
In The Life of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ and of the Blessed Virgin Mary
engraving
1879, published by the Benzinger Brothers
Courtesy of Archives and Special Collections

 

MERRY CHRISTMAS

“We desire to be able to welcome Jesus at Christmas-time, not in a cold manger of our heart, but in a heart full of love and humility, in a heart so pure, so immaculate, so warm with love for one another.” – St. Teresa of Calcutta

This engraved image depicting the birth of Jesus is from one of many bibles in the university’s Rare Book Library, which is cared for by the Department of Archives and Special Collections.  This volume, entitled The Life of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ and of his Virgin Mother Mary, was published in 1879 by Benzinger Brothers Publishing.[1]  The illustration shown here was engraved by Hercule Louis Catenacci, a French painter and illustrator.

Catenacci was born in Ferrara, a province in present-day Italy, in 1816.  He later moved to France, illustrating numerous books and journals on a variety of subjects.  Cantenacci’s versatility was demonstrated thematically as well in his ability to adopt numerous illustrative styles depending upon the commission.  His illustrations included Moorish architecture in Spain, sarcophagus designs from a French exposition, the art and architecture of India, liturgical objects, garden landscapes, Italian piazzas, Cambodian ruins and images of protestors.[2]

Benzinger Brothers Publishing was founded in Switzerland in 1792 with the express purpose of functioning as a Catholic publishing house.  In the late 19th century, the publisher expanded its operations to the United States, opening offices in Chicago and Cincinnati.[3]  It has been through many iterations since then, being bought, sold and consolidated several times.  Still in existence today, Benzinger Brothers has been operating under the name RCL Benzinger since 2016, when it became a subsidiary of Kendall Hunt Publishing of Dubuque, Iowa.[4]  RCL Benzinger still has offices in Cincinnati and primarily serves religious education programs for Catholic dioceses, parishes, schools, families, and individuals, including bilingual students and students with disabilities.[5]

 


The images and materials shown here are but a small part of the vast patrimony available to students, faculty and researchers.  For access to this or other objects in our collections, complete a research request form to set up an appointment or contact us at 973-761-9476.

 

 

[1] The Life Of Our Lord And Saviour Jesus Christ And Of His Virgin 1 Mother Mary. New York: Benzinger Brothers, 1879. p.298.

[2] https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Hercule_Catenacci, accessed 12/14/2020.

[3] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RCL_Benziger, accessed 12/14/2020.

[4]https://www.google.com/search?q=kendall+hunt+publishing&rlz=1C1GCEV_en&oq=kendall+hunt+publishing&aqs=chrome..69i57j0l7.2790j0j7&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

[5] https://rclbenziger.com/our-history, accessed 12/14/2020.