PD-1 inhibition (Figure 1) has quickly become a front-line therapy for non-small cell lung cancer and melanoma. Moreover, PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors are being tested in combination with other checkpoint inhibitors, targeted therapies, cancer vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and other modalities. But, how does PD-1 blunt the anti-tumor immune response? Continue reading
The results of two studies have demonstrated that the use of temozolomide (TMZ) plus radiation increases disease-free and overall survival in patients with glioblastoma and a low grade glioma called anaplastic glioma. Continue reading
It is estimated that about 40 percent of patients with advanced melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, will initially respond to an immunotherapy, but about a quarter of those 40 percent will relapse within three years of treatment. In order to identify the mechanisms by which resistance to PD-1 inhibition is mediated, UCLA researchers studied biopsies of melanoma tumors taken before and after treatment with Keytruda (pembrolizumab) in patients whose cancer had returned. Continue reading
Two new companies have received substantial funding to pursue neo-antigens for cancer immunotherapy: Gritstone Oncology raised $102MM to pursue lung cancer and Neon Therapeutics raised $55MM to develop neoantigen-based therapeutic vaccines and T cell therapies to treat cancer. Continue reading
The worldwide market for cancer immunotherapies is anticipated to grow from $1.1B in 2012 to $9B in 2022, that equals a 23/8% annual growth. Leading the growth are the immune checkpoint inhibitors.