During World War II, German forces occupied parts of France from 1940 until 1944. Starting in June 1942, it was required that people of Jewish descent wear the six-pointed Star of David – a common symbol of Judaism—to signify their heritage. “Juif,” the French word for “Jew,” is written in Hebraic-style lettering. This star belonged to Michel Jeifa of Paris who was sent to southern France and hidden by a Christian family in 1942 at age 16. He and his sister survived the Holocaust, while their parents lost their lives at Auschwitz concentration camp.
This patch is part of the Jeifa Family Collection and was donated in honor of the Jeifa Family.
This silk scarf commemorates three speeches presented during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War by Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini (b. 1883 – d. 1945). In the speeches, Mussolini compares the burgeoning Italian Empire with Ancient Rome. The speech from October 2, 1934 (left) announces the war with Ethiopia, the one from May 9, 1936 (center) declares Ethiopia’s annexation, and the one from May 5, 1936 (right) proclaims the occupation of Addis Ababa by Italian troops. These Italian actions were significant in the events leading up to World War II as Italy directly violated agreements with the League of Nations, of which both Italy and Ethiopia were members.
This scarf is part of the Valente Collection and was donated by Ruth Bystrom.
Akimel O’odham women of southern Arizona (also known as the Pima) use techniques passed down through generations to create fine baskets. Though baskets are now treated as art objects, they were originally created for storing, carrying, serving, drinking, and protecting food items. Beginning in the 1880s, more and more tourists, scientists, and collectors traveled by the new railroad lines to the southwestern United States, resulting in the creation of increased numbers of baskets, such as this one, for the tourist trade. The pattern shown on this basket is known as coyote track.
This basket is part of the Seton Hall Museum of Anthropology and Archaeology Collection.
Papal bulls, named after the “bulla” or seal used to authenticate them, are decrees made by popes. Pope Paul V, member of an Italian noble family who is best known for persecuting Galileo and financing the completion of St. Peter’s Basilica, served as pope from 1605-1621. His April 1, 1618 decree begins with the proclamation of Pope Paul II (1464-1471)—included in full as the earlier decree required it—regarding corruption in the alienation of church property by sale or gift. It was believed that property given to the church was a gift to God and could not legitimately be given to anyone else. This was a particularly complicated issue in the medieval world, as many bishops and Church institutions were also feudal lords. This decree centers on the Abbey of Saints Peter and Paul in Ospedaletto Lodigiano, belonging to the Hieronymite order, and the sale one of its properties near the Swiss border. Ultimately, Pope Paul V delegated the decision to a local official.
The decree was translated by Dr. Peter Ahr, with assistance from Dr. Michael Mascio and Dr. Fred Booth of Seton Hall University, and Reverend Dr. Federico Gallo, Director of the Library at Dottore della Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan.
This hammered silver coin was made during the reign of Caesar Augustus (27 B.C.E. – 14 C.E.), the first Roman emperor. He spearheaded the transformation of Rome from a republic to an empire through military strength and governing. The chariot and laurel wreath symbolize this military success, while the robes represent those worn by highly ranked government officials called consuls. This coin is from a distinguished collection of Etruscan and Greco-Roman antiquities, including over 400 coins, donated by alumnus Ronald D’Argenio (MS ‘76/JD ’79).