The list below is an outline of free databases, journals and websites designed to help students and scholars with their work and research in various areas of biblical studies.
A comprehensive and authoritative introduction to Scholarship and Fiction in Second Temple Judaism, i.e. the period from Ezekiel to the completion of the New Testament and the Mishnah. It also deals with the roots of Second Temple traditions in the Ancient Israelite Religion, as well as the influence and legacy of those traditions for Christian, Jewish and Islamic Origins, up to the time of the completion of the Qur’an. 4.
academic-bible.com – The Scholarly Bible Portal of the German Bible Society
These online Bibles are the official Internet editions of individual academic biblical texts. The following editions are currently available:
- Hebrew OT following the text of the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia
- Greek NT following the text of the Novum Testamentum Graece (ed. Nestle-Aland), 28. Edition and the UBS Greek New Testament
- Greek OT following the text of the Septuagint (ed. Rahlfs/Hanhart)
- Latin Bible following the text of the Vulgate (ed. Weber/Gryson)
You can also access the following translations:
- the German translation following Luther, Revised 1984
- the English King James translation
- the English Standard Version (ESV)
- the NETBible®
This Tanakh study resource provides texts, techniques and reference tools on a graphical user interface. The site utilizes classic through modern commentaries to look at Torah from a wide variety of lenses including literary and structural devices, plot and character analysis, art and literature, and the ancient near east and includes a customizable online Mikraot Gedolot, Tanakh Lab, concordance, and lexicon.
Ancient World Image Bank (AWIB)
The AWIB is a collaborative effort to distribute and encourage the sharing of free digital imagery for the study of the ancient world. New York University’s Institute for the Study of the Ancient World started AWIB by distributing imagery donated by its faculty, staff and students via Flickr under a Creative Commons Attribution (cc-by) license. You can view and download those images via the isawnyu flickr account.
Art and the Bible
This site offers background information on famous paintings and biblical themes. The collection includes hundreds of pictures of painting and links them to their corresponding Bible passage – the passage the artist may have read. Information on the paintings themselves is also provided.
The Bible texts are from the King James Version – the translation ordered by the British King James, first published in 1611.
Artefacts of Ancient Judaism Manuscript Collections
Artefacts of Ancient Judaism lets you browse scholarly commentary, bibliographies and images from the following manuscripts: Aramaic Levi Document; Ben Sira; Damascus Document; Ethiopic Enoch; Judaeo-Greek Ecclesiastes; Nash Papyrus; Palestinian Targum; the Hexapla; the Scroll of Antiochus; Tobit; and Toledot Yeshu.
The website is devoted to the ancient and medieval Hebrew manuscripts of the Book of Ben Sira. These documents, which are housed in Cambridge, Oxford, London, Paris, New York, Los Angeles and Jerusalem, are presented in a single platform to allow the scholar and the interested layperson to view these texts.
Beth Mardutho: The Syriac Institute
This open-access online library of Syriac books and material on Syriac studies. seeks to promote the study and preservation of the Syriac heritage and language and to facilitate opportunities for people to pursue the study of this ancient legacy globally.
Bialystoker Synagogue Online Library
This library contains links to a large variety of Jewish texts, including the full text of the Tanach, Rashi’s classic commentary in English, Talmudic manuscripts, the full text of the Mishnah Torah and many more.
Part of the OpenBible.info website, this page locates every identifiable place mentioned in the Bible by using Google Earth (KMZ). The page is categorized accordingly:
- Complete Bible – arranged by book and by chapter
- Individual Books – uses KML and KMZ files
- Atlas – lists all the places alphabetically, complete with thumbnails, verses and photos (when available).
- Overlays – lets you see how maps of ancient and modern Jerusalem fit satellite imagery
- Bodies of Water – contains outlines of most of the bodies of water in the Bible
- Photos – 10,000 photos of places in the Bible
Biblical Art on the WWW
Norwegian theologian and schoolteacher, Rolf E. Stærk, has created a helpful assistant in the search for biblical art on the Internet. The main content of his site is a database accompanied by a collection of thumbnail pictures, which may be searched by Biblical Subject, Biblical Text, Artist or Word.
Biblical Studies on the WEB (BSW)
This site publishes the electronic version of Biblica, The Pontifical Biblical Institute Journal, and Filología Neotestamentaria, New Testament Studies, a collection of journals put out by the Department of Greek Science Antiquity and the Middle Ages at the University of Córdoba.
Bibliographical Handouts by Dr. Sebastian Brock
This page has reproduced the priceless set of bibliographical handouts prepared by Dr. Sebastian Brock over many years of teaching Syriac in the Oriental Institute at the University of Oxford.
British Library’s Digitised Manuscripts
The Digitised Manuscripts site contains many different kinds of manuscripts, archives and documents, including the St. Cuthbert Gospel, the Theodore Psalter, the Lindisfarne Gospels, the Psalter of Henry VIII, the Codex Nitriensis and many more.
Cambridge Digital Library
This site provides access to a large collection of digitized manuscripts, including the Taylor-Schechter Cairo Genizah Collection, various Hebrew manuscripts and some of the finest Christian manuscripts and early printed books, spanning over 1000 years of worship and debate and reflecting both Church ceremonial and private devotion.
Catholic Resources for Bible, Liturgy, Art, and Theology
Felix Just, S.J., Ph.D. has created an extensive and impressive website that contains a variety of materials, mostly related to biblical and liturgical studies. Many pages contain his own writings and photographs, some were created by his students, and some are collections of links to other websites. The site’s biblical resources page is divided into the following categories: Johannine Literature; Revelation & Apocalyptic; The Four Evangelists; Evangelists’ Symbols; Biblical & Religious Art, Biblical Publishers.
Center for the Preservation of Ancient Religious Texts (CPART)
CPART has undertaken digital humanities projects relating to Syriac studies, manuscript studies and the Dead Sea Scrolls. These projects provide access to primary resources for the study of ancient religious texts.
Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM)
CSNTM’s online resources provide images of various papyri manuscripts, including high resolution images of the Chester Beatty Papryi.
The National Library in Stockholm’s website contains a digitized version of every page of the the Codex Gigas or the “Devil’s Bible” manuscript as well as commentaries on its history, texts, script, initials and decoration.
Codex Sinaiticus’ website features all extant pages of the Codex, which contains the Christian Bible in Greek, including the oldest complete copy of the New Testament.
Codices Electronici Sangallenses (CESG)
The purpose of the “Codices Electronici Sangallenses” (Digital Abbey Library of St. Gallen) is to provide access to the medieval codices and selected early modern manuscripts in the Abbey Library of St. Gallen by creating a virtual library. This virtual library contains more than 600 manuscripts
Cooperative Digital Resources Initiative (CDRI)
This database provides access to digital images of woodcuts, photographs, slides, papyri, coins, maps, postcards, manuscripts, lithographs, sermons, shape-note tune books and various forms of Christian art, architecture and iconography.
This site is a platform for interdisciplinary and computational research in texts in the Coptic language, particularly the Sahidic dialect. As an open-source, open-access initiative, their technologies and corpus facilitate a collaborative environment for digital research for all scholars working in Coptic.
Corpus Corporum – University of Zurich
This site is a Latin text (meta-)repository of Medieval Latin texts, including the entire Patrologia Latina, the Vulgate, Corpus Thomisticum and numerous other medieval and Neo-Latin collections of religious, literary and scientific texts.
Covenant & Conversation
Each week, Rabbi Jonathan Sacks writes a commentary essay to the weekly parsha (Torah portion). The multi-year series is called Covenant & Conversation.
Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Project
Users can access the Great Isaiah Scroll, the Community Rule Scroll, the Commentary on Habakkuk Scroll, the Temple Scroll and the War Scroll.
Digital Archaeological Atlas of the Holy Land (DAAHL)
DAAHL has brought together experts in information technology including Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the archaeology of the Holy Land (modern Israel, Palestine, Jordan, southern Lebanon, Syria and the Sinai Peninsula) to create the first online digital atlas of the area.
The Newberry’s digital collection includes two collections of interest: Polyglots: The Bible in Multiple Tongues, 1502-1657 and The Bible in Print. Polygots is a resource that introduces the great polyglot Bibles of the early modern period. These editions of the Bible displayed multiple translations side-by-side and are monuments to early modern religious devotion, scholarship, and craftsmanship. The Bible in Print resources include images and texts about some of the Newberry’s most important Bibles and are designed to help one gain a sense of how the different editions shaped religion, intellectual culture, identity, politics, and language.
Digital Syriac Corpus
The Digital Syriac Corpus is a freely available, open-access, online repository for digitized editions of Syriac texts. All of the texts in the Digital Syriac Corpus have been converted into TEI/XML formatting for display and robust searching.
This site contains complete sets of high-resolution archival images of manuscripts from the collection of the Walters Art Museum and features deluxe Gospel books from Armenia, Ethiopia, Byzantium, and Ottonian Germany, French and Flemish books of hours, as well as masterpieces of Safavid, Mughal and Ottoman manuscript illumination.
Digitized Medieval Manuscripts Maps (DMMmap)
The DMMapp links to more than 500 libraries in the world. Each one of these contains medieval manuscripts that can be browsed for free.
Duke Papyrus Archive
The Duke Papyrus Archive provides electronic access to texts about and images of nearly 1400 papyri from ancient Egypt. The target audience includes: papyrologists, ancient historians, archaeologists, biblical scholars, classicists, Coptologists, Egyptologists, students of literature and religion and all others interested in ancient Egypt.
Early Christian Writings
Early Christian Writings is the most complete collection of Christian texts before the Council of Nicaea in 325 AD. The site provides translations and commentary for these sources, including the New Testament, Apocrypha, Gnostics, Church Fathers and some non-Christian references.
e-codices – Virtual Manuscript Library of Switzerland
This virtual library offers free online access to medieval and early modern manuscripts from public and church-owned collections as well as from numerous private collections. With the support of the Rectors Conference of Swiss Universities e-codices has also been integrated into a national program for the establishment of digital infrastructure.
e-GEDSH is an electronic version of the 2011 edition of the Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage, published by Gorgias Press on behalf of the Beth Mardutho: The Syriac Institute. e-GEDSH is the result of the collaborative efforts of many scholars. The encyclopedia currently holds 622 entries written by 76 contributors. This digital edition is implemented on the Srophé App platform using TEI XML, eXist-db, and linked open data technologies.
Edgar J. Goodspeed Manuscript Collection
The Edgar J. Goodspeed Manuscript Collection comprises 68 early Greek, Syriac, Ethiopic, Armenian, Arabic and Latin manuscripts ranging in date from the 5th to the 19th centuries. All 68 New Testament manuscripts and an additional 114 papyri fragments are being digitized in their entirety and presented with high-quality zoomable images through an interface that supports browsing within individual manuscripts and across the collection.
ETANA (Electronic Texts and Ancient Near Eastern Archives)
ETANA has digitized, and continues to digitize, texts selected as valuable for teaching and research relating to ancient Near Eastern studies. They have selected primarily editions that are outside of copyright, or with the permission of copyright holders. While the new electronic editions they have produced are under copyright, the ETANA project chooses to make these freely available for noncommercial teaching and research purposes.
Fathers of the Church
New Advent has published the English translations of the writings of the Church Fathers on their site. Visitors can also access the Liturgies of James, Mark and the Blessed Apostles and other additional writings such as Apocrypha and documents from the Councils.
Friedberg Jewish Manuscript Society (FJMS)
FJMS and the Friedberg Genizah Project have digitized manuscripts and other books and documents primarily relating to Judaism. Users can access the following from the FJMS site: Genizah manuscripts and Genizah-related materials; the Nahum Collection of Yemenite Manuscripts; the Friedberg Judeo Arabic Project; and Yaakov Sussman’s Thesaurus of Talmudic Manuscripts.
Gershom Scholem’s Milon HaZohar Card Index
The catalogue contains personal notes that Gershom Scholem (1897-1982) took in anticipation of the future writing of a Zohar lexicon. The notes are in the form of white cards, each of which details a word from the Zohar and contains citations that include the meaning of the word and its various connotations, both in linguistic and Kabbalistic terms, and sometimes also symbolic ones. In addition, the cards contain other usages and explanations that elucidate the origin of the word and its etymological development from the ancient texts (Bible, Talmud and Midrashim) or medieval texts – philosophy and Kabbalah, in particular allusions to the works of Moses de Leon. The notes also contain etymological considerations and parallel words in other languages, as well as reference to usage in later Kabbalistic texts and discussion of these words in works by both early and modern Zohar commentators.
Guide to Early Christian Documents
This site contains links to Internet-accessible files relating to the early church, including canonical documents, creeds, the writings of the Apostolic Fathers and other historical texts relevant to church history.
Göttingen State and University Library and Saur Publishing House have published digitized versions of the Göttingen Gutenberg Bible, the Göttingen Model Book and the Helmasperger Notarial Instrument. Explanatory texts about Gutenberg and his life, the early period of letterpress printing and its impact are also freely accessible. Visitors to the site can compare the illuminations in the Bible with the Model Book as well as compare well-known passages from the Bible with different translations.
HebrewBooks.org has thousands of rare and out of print books and journals online.
Hill Museum & Manuscript Library (HMML)
HMML holds works of art and rare printed books from the Middle Ages to the present and is home to The Saint John’s Bible, the first handwritten and illuminated Bible to have been commissioned by a Benedictine Abbey since the invention of the printing press in the 15h century. Additionally, HMML’s online image library, Vivarium, contains digitized manuscripts, art, rare books, photographs and other resources from two Benedictine monastic and educational communities in central Minnesota.
Index Theologicus (IxTheo)
The IxTheo is a comprehensive bibliography for theology and religious studies that is free and open access service to the worldwide scholarly community. Its editors are the Universitätsbibliothek Tübingen (library of the University of Tübingen) as well as the Evangelisch-Theologische Fakultät Tübingen (the protestant faculty of theology of the University of Tübingen) and the Katholisch-Theologische Fakultät Tübingen (the Catholic faculty of theology of the same university).
It is now possible to search not only for articles, but also for monographs, databases and relevant Internet links. Additionally, a selection of review journals is now also included. When the relevant licenses permit it, it is possible to access directly the complete text of the articles, reviews and books.
Jewish Roots of Eastern Mysticism
The interdisciplinary seminar on the Jewish Roots of Eastern Christian Mysticism is designed as the internet version of an ongoing research seminar of graduate students. The seminar is directed by Andrei Orlov, a professor of Judaism and Christianity in Antiquity (Marquette University). Currently the seminar is not confined solely to the students of Marquette University but also includes participants from various scholarly communities.
Themes are announced and resources pertaining to them are posted on the webpage. The resources normally include previously published and unpublished scholarly articles, electronic publications, lectures, reviews, and sometimes the critical responses to these materials.
Journal of Hebrew Scriptures (JHS)
JHS is an international, peer-reviewed, open access, journal established in 1996 to foster scholarly research on the Hebrew Bible, Ancient Israel’s History and cognate fields of studies.
Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
In partnership with Google Research and Development Center in Israel, the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) has launched The Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library to document the entire Dead Sea Scrolls collection online
This project uses the most advanced and innovative technologies available to image the entire collection of about 930 manuscripts, comprising thousands of Dead Sea Scrolls fragments, in high-resolution and multiple spectra. Through this process, hundreds of images are now accessible to anyone, anywhere in the world over the Internet, with many thousands more on the way.
The IAA is collaborating with Google to upload all of the digitized Scrolls images online, enabling users to explore the manuscripts and their contents in a number of languages and formats. Ultimately, the images will be accompanied by meta-data including transcriptions, translations and detailed bibliography.
Maaseik Museums – Saint Catherine’s Church
The Codex Eyckensis, a Gospel Book from the treasury of Saint Catherine’s church in Maaseik, has been digitized at high resolution under the leadership of Professor Lieve Watteeuw and in cooperation with the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Imaging Lab (Bruno Vandermeulen) and with the KU Leuven Illuminare – Centre for the study of Medieval Art. In addition to the Codex Eyckensis, there is another, lesser-known 10th-century Gospel Book held in the depository of the Maaseik Museums. This manuscript has been digitized and made available here.
Users can access the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) and the RaMBaM’s Complete Restatement of the Oral Law (Mishneh Torah).
National Library of Israel (NLI)
NLI’s online catalogue now includes more than 4,000 linked records to freely available digitized Hebrew manuscripts online (post-dating the Dead Sea Scrolls) from institutions around the world, including 1,000 on the NLI website itself.
New Testament Gateway
A web directory of internet resources on the New Testament. Browse or search annotated links on everything connected with the academic study of the New Testament and Christian Origins. Includes a Greek New Testament Gateway, book reviews, biblical translations, non-canonical writings, the books of the NT, the ancient world, historical Jesus, the synoptic problem, women and gender, and art and images.
Online Critical Pseudepigrapha
The mandate of the Online Critical Pseudepigrapha is to develop and publish electronic editions of the best critical texts of the “Old Testament” Pseudepigrapha and related literature. Visitors to the site can access the following documents:
*Testament of Solomon
*Testament of Abraham
*Visions of Amram
*Apocryphon of Ezekiel
*Assumption of Moses
*Philo the Epic Poet
*Letter of Aristeas
*Exagoge of Ezekiel the xTragedian
*Aristeas the Exegete
*Eldad and Modad
*Lives of the Prophets
*History of the Rechabites
Oriental Institute Publication Program
The Oriental Institute has published more than 700 reports, both scientific and popular, on the results of the Institute’s research and activities in the Near East. Ancient language dictionaries, text editions, archaeological reports, and related Near Eastern studies are well represented.
A comprehensive directory of Orthodox Internet Resources.
Parker Library on the Web
Almost all manuscripts in the Parker Library collection have been fully digitized and are available in this exhibit, along with associated bibliographic references and annotations made by scholars from around the world. The collection, largely established by Matthew Parker (1504 – 1575) (Archbishop of Canterbury and Master of the College) in the late sixteenth century, includes such books as the sixth-century St. Augustine Gospels, the earliest copy of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the Bury Bible and the autograph copy of Matthew Paris’ Chronica maiora.
Patristic Text Archive
The “Patristic Text Archive” provides everyone interested with a collection of Late Antique Christian texts (i.e. “Patristic” is conceived in a very broad sense). The archive starts off with Greek texts, but it is open to all languages, in which texts from Late Antique Christianity are transmitted.
Post-Reformation Digital Library (PRDL)
A select database of digital books relating to the development of theology and philosophy during the Reformation and Post-Reformation/Early Modern Era (late 15th-18th century). Late medieval and patristic works printed and referenced in the early modern era are also included.
Princeton University Sefer Hasidim Database (PUSHD)
The PUSHD database includes fourteen manuscripts containing different versions of the Sefer Hasidim (Book of the Pious) and its fragments. Access to these manuscripts is free but requires one to register.
Resource Pages for Biblical Studies
Contains links to resources, arranged in three parts: Texts and Translations, which include linguistic resources and lexica; Social World of New Testament, which presents sources and studies dealing with the social world related to the NT; and the Philo of Alexandria page.
Revue de Qumrân Featured Articles
On the occasion of the launch of the website of the Revue de Qumrân, Gabalda publishing and the editorial board offers twelve open access articles published in the journal between 1958 and today. Most of the articles have been seminal in one way or another and their selection was made to illustrate the diversity of subject matter, scholarly approach and geographic provenance.
The Scripture Bulletin is a peer-reviewed journal published twice yearly since 1969 by the Catholic Biblical Society of Great Britain.
Second Temple Synagogues
Dr. Donald D. Binder’s site is devoted to the study of Second Temple Synagogues. It serves as the Internet companion to his book, Into the Temple Courts: The Place of the Synagogues in the Second Temple Period (Atlanta: The Society of Biblical Literature, 1999). The site has an Image Gallery of Second Temple synagogue remains and inscriptions; a Literary Archive with quotations about the early synagogues from ancient sources; and a resource library containing more than a thousand links to both primary and secondary sources for the study of Judaism and Christianity in the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
Sephardic Studies Collection at the University of Washington
The Sephardic Studies Collection at the University of Washington is one of most expansive and fastest growing repositories of source materials pertaining to the Sephardic Jewish experience. The Collection showcases a wide array of published and unpublished materials, including novels, prayer books, bibles, manuscripts, and letters, as well as audio.
Sinai Palimpsests Project
This website provides access to high-quality images and descriptive metadata created by the Sinai Palimpsests Project, an international effort that with a five-year grant from the Arcadia Fund used multi-spectral imaging to recover the erased layers of writing in seventy-four palimpsest manuscripts kept by the library of St. Catherine’s Monastery.
syri.ac – University of Oklahoma
This website is a comprehensive annotated bibliography of open-access resources related to the study of Syriac. Of particular interest is the site’s “Digitized Manuscripts” page, where you can view a collection of hard-to-find Syriac manuscript catalogs and directly access digitized manuscripts from around the world.
The Syriac Reference Portal is a collaborative research project publishling online reference works concerning the culture, history and literature of Syriac communities from antiquity to the present. The online publications of Syriaca.org serve a broad scholarly audience including students of Middle Eastern studies, classics, medieval history, religious studies, biblical studies and linguistics.
TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism
TC is a peer-reviewed electronic journal dedicated to study of the Jewish and Christian biblical texts.
Theological Commons – Princeton Theological Seminary
The Theological Commons is a digital library of over 100,000 resources on theology and religion. It consists mainly of public domain books but also includes periodicals, audio recordings, photographs, manuscript collections, and other formats and features the following collections: Benson Collection of Hymnals and Hymnology; Latin America Collection; Missionary Research Library Pamphlets; Moffett Korea Collection; Payne Theological Seminary and A.M.E. Church Archive; Princeton Theological Seminary Media Archive; and T.F. Torrance Collection of Antiquarian Books.
TheTorah.com is the flagship website of Project TABS (Torah and Biblical Scholarship). Founded in 2012, Project TABS solicits original works of scholarship from noted academics, intellectuals and rabbis from across the world. These works are published on Project TABS’ websites, TheTorah.com and TheGemara.com.
Trinity College Dublin – Digital Collections
The online collection at Trinity College Dublin includes The Book of Kells, whixh contains the four Gospels in Latin based on the Vulgate text, which St Jerome completed in 384AD, intermixed with readings from the earlier Old Latin translation. All digital surrogates have been scanned from transparencies, which were imaged by Faksimile Verlag, Lucerne, Switzerland, in 1990. Currently only the illuminations are available for online view and records will be amended with scholarly research at a later date.
Vatican Library of Digitized Manuscripts
This website provides free access to the Vatican Library’s digitized collections of manuscripts and incunabula, mostly from the Middle Age and Humanistic period.
Works of Flavius Josephus
Wesley Center Online contains the full text of several essential works of Josephus translated by William Whiston and The Complete Collection of Josephus in a zip file.
World Digital Library (WDL)
The WDL is a project of the U.S. Library of Congress, carried out with the support of the United Nations Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (UNESCO), and in cooperation with libraries, archives, museums, educational institutions, and international organizations from around the world. WDL makes available on the Internet, free of charge and in multilingual format, significant primary materials from all countries and cultures. WDL’s biblical studies documents are categorized into the following sections:
- Christianity & Christian theology
- Christian moral & devotional theology
- Local Christian church and Christian religious orders
- Christian social and ecclesiastical theology
- History of Christianity & Christian church
- Christian denominations & sects