Early Irish Education – Nineteenth Century “How To” Guide Books

classroomA common thread shared by most students enrolled in a formal educational program is the traditional meeting in a classroom space of some type with a teacher to guide lesson plans and discussion regardless of time or place.  For example, in Ireland during the nineteenth century there were some academies that remained largely private, separately governed, tuition driven, and primarily located near, or within well-populated towns and cities. The famed “hedge” schools (or scoil chois claí) conducted in rural areas were usually taught out of doors in between bushes (hence the name) in a more basic setting that served as an alternative option for those who did not have access to a more formal school house in their respective area. Considering the want and need of learning, a more modern approach was had in 1831 as a National School initiative was formally established with the goal of providing an educational bond between Catholic and Protestant children under one system. However, even as administrators sought to: “unite in one system children of different creeds,” the preferred method expressed by ecclesiastical officials was to have each individual school house placed under control of an individual church.  Despite the sponsorship questions that arose, the curricular objective was to offer a more liberal arts (reading, writing, and arithmetic) focus with a heavy “moral” component to the young students of which an estimated 300-400,000 throughout all of Ireland attended during the 1830s after the formal system was set into action.

Plan and elevation of desks


More detailed information about the development of grade school level information in the annals of Irish history can be researched through our collections with a particular emphasis on how educators articulated the proper method of instruction.  In particular there are two volumes – The Schoolmaster’s Manual (1825) and The Handbook of School Management and Methods of Teaching by P.W. Joyce (1864) articulate the goals inherent in formative academic training methodology.  As the first work from the 1820s told readers by way of an introductory observation – “As this work is intended for the assistance of those who are convinced that well-ordered education, suited to their respective stations, should be diffused as extensively as possible amongst all classes in society, and who are desirous of  becoming acquainted with the modern improvements in the manner of imparting instruction to the poor.”  The Handbook would offer an expression of its own philosophy to the reader in the following words – “. . . the site of a school should be dry and cheerful, and easily accessible to the great bulk of the population.”  These words and the guidance provided to instructors and students alike would help to show the development of educational life in Ireland over time and provides a window to past practice in the process.

For more information about accessing these and other works on education and other subject matter please feel free to inquire via e-mail: Alan.Delozier@shu.edu  or call (973) 275-2378 for more details.

occupation of school hours

Introducing the Daniel J. Leab collection

In 2015, the Archives and Special Collections Center received a donation of research materials from Seton Hall Professor Emeritus Daniel J. Leab. Dr. Leab taught in the history department for over thirty years, and over the course of his career he has served the University as director of the American Studies program, chair of the History Department, chair of the Rank and Tenure committee, and founder and director of Seton Hall’s Multi-Cultural Program. The materials in this collection were used by Dr. Leab in his research on various topics, including the Cold War, American communism, the American labor movement, the history of the FBI and the CIA, and the history of film.

The majority of the collection is made up of books, most notably a nearly complete run of House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) reports. The HUAC materials represent years of hearings based on the alleged subversive activities of private citizens and they seem to symbolize the climate of fear and suspicion during the Cold War era. Included in the HUAC reports are the controversial Hollywood investigations, in which many members of the entertainment industry were subpoenaed based on alleged communist activities.

HUAC hollywood blog
HUAC report on communist infiltration of the motion-picture industry. The reports, printed by the U.S. Government Printing Office, had only paper covers and were bound by two staples driven through the pages near the spine.
Some of the HUAC reports in the Leab collection were combined into large volumes and sturdily re-bound, with a decorative marbling effect applied to the exposed edge of the pages.
Some of the HUAC reports in the Leab collection were combined into large volumes and sturdily re-bound, with a decorative marbling effect applied to the exposed edge of the pages.

The collection contains many additional books which address the Cold War era, providing rich context for the HUAC reports and exploring other aspects of the time period, such as Senator Joseph McCarthy’s anti-communist activities. In addition, there are a number of volumes on American labor relations. A full list of the books in the collection can be viewed in the Daniel J. Leab collection research guide.

unamericana blog
A quarter-century of un-Americana : a tragico-comical memorabilia of HUAC: This book of “Un-Americana” contains political cartoons and writings satirizing the House Un-American Activities Committee.

As a supplement to the book collection, there is also a small archival collection containing publications relating to the Cold War and labor relations, and a number of photocopies from the American Heritage Center’s Louis de Rochemont collection, which Dr. Leab consulted while researching his book Orwell Subverted: the CIA and the filming of Animal Farm. A finding aid for the collection is available.
The Daniel J. Leab collection may be viewed by appointment in the Archives and Special Collections Center Reading Room. To make an appointment, please contact 973-761-9476 or archives@shu.edu.