NB: The full article was first published on the Global Observatory
In a new policy paper published by the International Peace Institute, Kristen Boon argues that clear termination policies are as relevant to sanctions’ effectiveness as front-end policies for targeting specific groups, individual and entities. Her research demonstrates that sanctions that contain clear objectives can shorten conflict cycles. Because sanctions work best as a means of persuasion and not punishment, a powerful inducement is to provide incentives for compliance with criteria for lifting sanctions. Clear termination policies aid in this goal. Second, shorter sanctions should be encouraged. The incentive to comply will be strongest when narrow, and decisive, sanctions are imposed and carefully managed, in comparison to measures that languish without effecting a change in behavior.
In Sudan, for example, there is a general consensus that the sanctions imposed under Resolution 1591 in 2005 have stalled. There have been no new listings since 2006; no consensus on harmonizing the existing sanctions with a parallel ICC investigation; and little evidence that the sanctions have aided the victims of the ongoing conflict. It is time to consider a sunset clause: wind down these sanctions that are widely viewed as ineffective, and turn to a different method of diplomacy, coercion, conflict management, or even a new and refined set of sanctions.
A related issue is the duration of particular measures under an existing sanctions regime. Refocusing sanctions to better manage the timeline of particular measures would improve effectiveness. For example, does the ongoing arms embargo against al-Qaeda make sense when the real threat appears to be coming from regional spin-off groups? In comparison, efforts to impose narrowly targeted sanctions against al-Shabaab in the Somalia/Eritrea regime or Yemeni al-Qaeda affiliates under the Yemen sanctions are a step in the right direction.