About This Exhibit
"I am the prince's wife and never meant to be other than subjection to him" - Queen Mary II
Timeline of Events during Queen Mary's Reign
1689- William and Mary become joint King and Queen
1689- Parliament formulates the Declaration of Right, which detailed the unconstitutional acts of James II
1689- Bill of Rights is formulated and passed by Parliament
1689- Jacobite Highlanders rise in support of James II
1689- Catholic forces loyal to James II land in Ireland
1690- William leaves to Ireland; Mary left completely in charge of the nation until his return.
Queen Mary II Of England (1689-1694)
Mary was born on April 30, 1662. She was the eldest daughter of James II and his first wife, Anne Hyde. Mary and her younger sister, Anne, were raised protestant on behalf of the request of their uncle, Charles II, even though their father converted to Catholicism. Mary eventually married her first cousin, William, Prince of Orange. When Charles II passed away, her father became king, but because of his pro-catholic policies and laws, the country was on the verge to a constitutional crisis. William and Mary also opposed the views of James II, and they had planned to overthrow him. This became known as the Glorious Revolution which marked a remarkable moment in England's history. As a result of this revolution, James II fled the country. The nation then invited Mary as a sole monarch to rule the country, but when she had refused to do anything without her husband. The nation then requested both William and Mary to rule England as joint monarchs.
The reign of Mary II of England and William depicted a memorable moment in the history of England. The first year of her reign, Queen Mary II was very dependent on William, and she could not make decisions for the nation alone. Instead, she was very skeptical when it came to ruling the country. Queen Mary II states, "...My heart is not made for a kingdom, and my inclination leads me to a retired quiet life, so that I have need of all the resignation and self-denial in the world to bear with such a condition as I am now in" (Waterson, 35). She was not too involved in the country affairs her first year, and she left everything up to her husband. She followed and supported his decisions. According to Elaine Phillips in her article, "Creating Queen Marry: Textual Representation of Queen Mary II", she states that Queen Mary II, "...offered fewer public speeches, fewer royal progresses, and fewer proclamations in her own name...and so created a less specific image for herself" (62). She was not physically too involved in the nation affairs, until her husband had left the country to take other matters in his own hands. Now, Mary II was in complete charge of the nation, and she "developed her own style of queenship" (Gchwoerer, 738).
When the King had left, the "Regency Act, passed in May 1690, enabled Mary to exercise regal power in her name and William's during the King's absence..."(Gchwoerer, 735), but it also gave William the authority to override her acts, if they were not valid, upon his return. Queen Mary II proved herself to be a very powerful and intelligent ruler. The people of England came to realize that Queen Mary II was capable of making wise decisions without her husband. The country's "confidence in Mary grew as they recognized that not only was she an English princess, who therefore could be trusted, but that she was also entirely devoted to her husband without personal ambition" (Gchwoerer 735).
"In England, Mary used her influence to discredit drinking...encouraged the establishment of a hospital at Greenwich for injured naval men..."(Gchwoerer, 730), and she became very active with the church as well. Parliament, finally, began to recognize her contributions and her hard work. She donated a lot of money for the poor to the Church as well as participating in a lot of social events for the causes that the people of England had opposed. Along with being so active, "the queen showed a stern and uncompromising attitude towards men suspected of plotting against the government" (Gchwoerer 739). This had also included her uncle, Henry Hyde, who plotted against the government to help restore James II back to the throne. She did not compromise when it came to the protection of her people and country. Along with the people who "worshipped" (Waterson 35) Mary and her devotion to the nation, many had also criticized it. She was not portrayed as a successful ruler for many, which included the Jacobites, who claimed that she was not a fair daughter for what she did to her father. A Jacobite writer in "A Letter from a Gentleman in the Country to his Correspondent in the City, Concerning the Coronation Medal", he explains that people should know, "...this King and Queen had not by Permission, but by Violence; ascended their father's throne..." (Phillips 6
Towards the end of her reign, Queen Mary had gotten very sick because of smallpox. "Even her death is celebrated as a great loss to William's claims to England" (Phillips 68). She had proven to be a great Queen, and the country was devastated when she had passed.
"Cricket is not illegal, for it is a manly game" - Queen Anne of Great Britain
Anne was born on February 6, 1665. She was the youngest daughter of James II and Anne Hyde, and she was the younger sister of Queen Mary II. Just like her sister, Anne was raised Protestant as well, upon the request of her uncle Charles II. She married Prince George of Denmark. Anne's reign would be very significant and memorable because she was going to be the last of the Stuart Monarchs, and the first sovereign of Great Britain. Anne became the queen after William III had died.
The Queen, from her very first speech to Parliament showed very strong interest in Church matters and declared her intentions to keep the matters and issues of Church in her hands. Queen Anne was very active and involved a lot more compared to Mary, who relied on her husband quite a lot. Queen Anne did not always rely on her husband's decisions, instead she was heavily influenced by other people, like Sarah Churchill (Green 248). Sarah Churchill was a very important part of Queen's Anne's life. Along with being the Lady of the Bedchamber (at the time), Sarah Churchill became very good friends with Queen Anne.
Queen Anne's reign was marked to be very powerful and significant. Along with this, it would be marked to be one of the most brilliant in the annals of England. There was very a lot of conflict between the two party system that was developed. This two-party system consisted of the Whigs and the Tories. The Whigs, according to Queen Anne, was a party that was associated with "republicanism" (Green 69). But, "she must and would always support the Church, and what she knew as the Church party was the Tory Party" (Green 69). Anne was a "strong Tory" (Green 134), but she was also in complete support of the War of Spanish Succession which was a Whig War.
Apart from the political issues, Anne's reign was remembered because of the amount of involvement she had with people, which made her very popular. She was very active with the Church, and she donated a lot of money to the year annually for the poor. She was described be very caring and generous. Unlike Mary II, Queen Anne was a little more shy and reserved at first, but she realized her responsibilities a lot sooner. Along with positives, people said many negative things about her, but majority of the people were very happy with her reign. From all the controversy events occurring, especially between the Whigs and Tories, "the one thing to emerge was the Regency Ac, which provided for regents to govern the hazardous gap that might occur between the death of Anne and the arrival of her successor..." (Green 147).
Even though, Anne left most of her political decisions in the hands of politicians that she trusted, she was still very successful as a Queen. Even after her death in 1714, the issues between the Whigs and Tories would remain unsolved and continuing.
1702- Anne succeeds her brother in law, William III.
1702- England declares war on France in the War of the Spanish Succession.
1704- British capture Gibraltar from Spain.
1706- Marlborough defeats the French at the Battle of Ramillies, and expels the French from the Netherlands.
1707- The Act of Union unities the kingdoms of England and Scotland and transfers the seat of Scottish government to London.
1708- Anne vetoes a parliamentary bill to reorganize the Scottish militia.
1710- The Whig government falls and a Tory ministry is formed.
1711- First race meeting held at Ascot
1713- The Treaty of Utrecht is signed by Britain and France- end of the War of the Spanish Succession
1714- Queen Anne dies
- Queen Anne Portrait
- Queen Anne & King George Portrait
- Queen Anne & her son
- The Act of Union with Scotland
Portrait by Michael Dahl
Portrait of Queen Anne of England & George Prince of Denmark by Charles Boit
Act of Union with Scotland (Golden picture in the tab)- http://www.cranntara.org.uk/treaty.htm
Act of Union with Scotland (picture next to text)- http://www.cranntara.org.uk/treaty.htm
Farooq, Jennifer. "Preaching for the Queen: Queen Anne and English Sermon Culture, 1702-1714." Journals for Eighteenth-Century Studies Vol 37.Issue 2 (2014): 159-169. Historical Abstracts. 18 NOV 2014.
Green, David. Queen Anne. New York: Charles Scribner's Son, 1970. Print.
Phillips, Elaine Anderson. "Creating Queen Mary: Textual Representation of Queen Mary II." Restoration: Studies in English Literary Culture Vol 37.Issue 1(2003): 61-75. JSTOR. 18 NOV 2014.
Queen Anne Pictures: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anne,_Queen_of_Great_Britain
This included the family portraits with her husband and son.
Queen Mary & her family pictures/ portraits: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_II_of_England
Schwoerer, Lois G. "Images of Queen Mary II, 1689-95." Renaissance Quarterly Vol 42.Issue 4(1989): 717-748. JSTOR. 18 Nov 2014.